A general blood test in children is an important indicator that is closely monitored by pediatricians. This clinical study allows the doctor to assess the state of the baby's health and, upon detection of abnormalities, immediately begin an additional examination and subsequent treatment.
General analysis of blood - preparation
This stage is very important, since the objectivity of the results depends on it. The doctor will certainly give detailed advice to parents. More often the analysis of a blood - preparation for delivery is those:
- Parents need to adjust their crumbs to the fact that this procedure is not terrible. However, do not deceive the child, saying that it will not hurt at all. So the kid, faced with the real situation, will be disappointed in adults. You can tell a child that he is brave and his parents are proud of him. Such moral training will protect the child from anxiety and help avoid hysteria.
- The general analysis of blood in children is taken on an empty stomach. The last meal should be done 12-14 hours before taking the material. In other words, if the examination is scheduled for 9.00, you can feed the baby no later than 21.00. In the morning, you can not give your child milk, tea, cocoa. You can give it a small amount of still water. If a general blood test is taken in infants who can not withstand prolonged fasting, the procedure passes between the feedings.
- Immediately before the study you need to limit the physical activity of the baby. If the child will run, jump, frolic, a clinical analysis of the blood decoding in children will show a distorted result.
- For 5-7 days before the forthcoming study, it is important to stop giving the child vitamins and other medicines (except for vital drugs that provide for continuous reception).
- Before the examination, the child must sleep , because his emotional state will affect the behavior of red blood cells. In addition, it is important that the baby goes to the toilet. So, the body will be free of toxins, and this will affect the results of the analysis.
How do they take blood from children?
Gem-liquid can be taken from both the finger and the vein. More common is the first option. In newborns, the material is taken from the heel. This is how the blood from the finger is taken from the children:
- The lab assistant processes the finger pad with an antiseptic solution. Then, the surface is dried with a sterile wadded disk.
- With the help of a disposable scarifier pierce a finger to a depth of 2-3 mm.
- The first drop of blood on the surface removes a dry sterile cotton swab.
- The next 10 drops of a laboratory assistant is collected by a special adapter. The blood must go by gravity. Extrude it is impossible, as it will lead to its mixing with tissue fluids. This will affect the results of the research: they will be unreliable.
- The lab technician moves the selected blood to a labeled tube.
- At the puncture site, apply a sterile cotton ball moistened in an antiseptic solution. It is recommended to keep it for 5-7 minutes. Approximately so much time is needed to completely stop bleeding.
Indicators of blood test in children
Modern laboratories are equipped with special innovative equipment, which facilitates the work of a specialist. The test material is charged to the device, and within a minute the device outputs the result. After that the analysis of blood in children is rechecked by the laboratory assistant. A specialist, before issuing a decryption, must make sure that the device has not made a mistake.
The following indicators are analyzed:
- hemoglobin ;
- ESR ;
- lymphocytes ;
- stabbed and so on.
Hemoglobin in the blood
It is a complex protein found in red blood cells. The main task of this substance is the transfer of oxygen and carbon dioxide. During the study, hemoglobin is detected in the general blood test. To be more precise, the amount of r of this protein in 1 liter of heme-liquid is calculated. Norms are as follows:
- newborns - 138-220;
- 1-12 months - 99-138;
- 1-6 years - 109-144;
- 6-12 years old - 114-148;
- over 12 years old - 114-150.
When the indicator of hemoglobin is higher than normal, this indicates that the baby has dehydration, provoked by severe vomiting, diarrhea, or pathology in the work of the cardiovascular or excretory system. Immediately need medical help. Low value is also dangerous. It is accompanied by anemia, poor diet, leukemia or other haematological diseases.
Blood test for a child - ESR
This indicator indicates the rate of settling of red corpuscles. In a healthy child (this also applies to adults) in erythrocytes is a negative charge, so they repel each other. Present in the blood plasma protein, for example, fibrinogen, promotes the clumping of red corpuscles. Such erythrocytes settle faster than healthy ones. The presence of protein indicates inflammation or other pathology. To "see" the same deviation helps the ESR in a general blood test. The norms are as follows (mm / h):
- newborns - 0,1-2,0;
- 1-12 months - 2,0-12,0;
- from 1 year and older - 2.0-10.0.
If the indicator is below the norm, this indicates the following pathological conditions:
- viral hepatitis;
- prolonged diarrhea;
- prolonged vomiting;
- circulatory insufficiency.
With an increased value of ESR in the child's body, such pathologies can occur:
- disorders in the thyroid gland;
- infectious diseases;
- appearance of malignant formation.
Erythrocytes in a general blood test
The study determines not only the volume of red corpuscles, but also their width (the difference between the largest and smallest cells). Carrying out the analysis of a blood to children about one year, consider also a season. So, in the heat period, babies drink a lot of fluids, because of which anisocytosis is possible. However, this phenomenon is not considered a pathological condition. When a blood test is performed - decoding in children, the norm is (x10 to 12 cells per liter of heme-liquid):
- newborns - 4,41-6,61;
- 1-12 months - 3,61-4,91;
- 1-6 years - 3.51-4.51;
- 6-12 years old - 3.51-4.71;
- over 12 years of age - 3,61-5,12.
The following factors that reduce the volume of red blood cells are considered dangerous:
- insufficiency of bone marrow development;
- parasitic diseases;
- monotonous meager food.
If the total blood test in children shows a high level of red blood cells, this can be caused by the following reasons:
- dysfunction of the lungs;
- problems in the work of the heart;
- stenosis of the renal artery.
Platelets in a general blood test
The task of these cells is to create a platelet aggregate with damage to blood vessels and accelerate plasma clotting. The clinical analysis of a child's blood helps to determine the quantitative value of this indicator. The norms are (x10 in the 9th degree of cells on the heme-liquid l):
- from birth to 6 years - 180,5-400,0;
- 6-12 years old - 157.0-380.0;
- over 12 years old - 157.0-390.0.
If the growth revealed these cells during the comparison, more often it indicates the following problems:
- severe blood loss;
- oncological diseases;
- dysfunction of the spleen.
Thrombocytopenia can be caused by:
- the baby was born prematurely;
- the child has hemophilia;
- a kid aplastic anemia;
- with DIC-syndrome.
Hematocrit in a general blood test
This is an indicator that indicates the percentage of red corpuscles in the total volume of the heme. The norms for the analysis of blood in children vary according to age:
- in newborns - from 43% to 63%;
- a baby up to a year - from 36% to 44%;
- 2-10 years - from 37% to 44%.
The high indicator is caused more often by such reasons:
- dysfunction of the respiratory system;
- intestinal obstruction;
- leukemia of the blood;
A low value indicates such problems:
- heavy bleeding;
- large amount of blood;
- the protein content of the heme liquid is increased.
Leukocytes in a general blood test
These cells participate in the creation of cellular and humoral immunity. Carrying out the analysis of the child's blood - lymphocytes, take into account the fact that the norm varies depending on the age (x10 in the 9th degree of cells on the heme-liquid l):
- newborns - 7.21-18.51;
- 1-12 months - 6,15-12,0;
- 1-6 years old - 5,1-12,0;
- 6-12 years old - 4.4-10.0;
- over 12 years old - 4,3-9,5.
An increase in the indicator indicates such problems:
- failure in the endocrine system;
- infectious diseases;
- internal bleeding;
- parasitic diseases;
The lowered value is provoked by such factors:
- bacterial infections;
- bone marrow dysfunction;
- shortage of zinc, selenium, iodine in the body.
What is the color index in the blood test?
"Calculated" only if the study is done manually. The color index of blood is a value indicating the hemoglobin content in red blood cells:
- hypochromia - hemoglobin practically none;
- normochromia - the value of the indicator is ideal;
- hyperchromia - excessive saturation with hemoglobin.
General blood test - normal in children
After receiving the results, the pediatrician evaluates the condition of the baby, comparable actual values with the calculated ones. To do this, he has a transcript of the blood test in children - a table. In it, the indicators are detailed taking into account the following factors: