Correctly designed and completed roof insulation helps significantly save money for heating the house. The total heat loss that goes through the roof can be up to 30%, so given the ever-increasing cost of energy resources, this topic worries an increasing number of people.
Technology of roof insulation
The following factors influence the choice of the method of roof insulation with layers of heat-insulating material: the shape and construction of the floors, climatic loads, the type of the external roofing material, the functional purpose of the attic space. For example, when arranging a residential attic, you can not do cold winter without a high-quality thermal insulation of the roof of the house from the inside.
Types of insulation of the roof:
- Thermal insulation - the main layer that prevents the leakage of thermal energy.
- Steam insulation - protects building structures from the harmful effects of vapors that come from the interior.
- Waterproofing - is needed as a barrier from outside moisture coming from outside.
- Reflective layer - reduces heat loss from thermal radiation.
- Windproofing - protects the house from weathering.
Insulation of the roof of a private house
Full insulation of the roof of the house from the inside and outside can not be imagined without preparatory work. Be sure to inspect the rafter system for mold, rotten parts. Minor damage to the wooden surface is sanded with sandpaper and treated with antiseptic or paint. Before heat insulation, the worn-out parts are replaced in a timely manner, electrical wiring repairs, and fire-fighting measures.
Roof pit insulation
It is easier and more convenient to make the insulation of a saddle roof with mineral wool, or polymeric materials, which are made in the form of plates. It should be provided for a good ventilation of the roof due to blows under the skates and in the overhang of the roof. Waterproofing is made with the help of a roofing material or a membrane layer. Installation work on insulation is made from the attic side by rafters.
Heat insulation of pitched roof:
- We measure the distance between the rafters.
- The heat sink is cut with a margin of 1 mm for a dense entry into the gap.
- It is desirable to fasten rafters through gaps that allow you to cut material with minimal waste.
- The membrane is fastened to the rafters with a stapler.
- Waterproofing is taken from the bottom under the roof overhang for reliable removal of moisture.
- When installing without an air gap, a superdiffusion membrane is necessarily used.
- When laying insulation we try not to combine the joints of the upper and lower layers.
- The heat insulator is fixed in the plane of the rafters with a stretched cord or crate from the rails.
- Gidrobariera canvases are nailed with a lap of 10 mm.
Warming of a broken roof
The broken roof is a construction with several skates, so this type of roof is better suited for mansard-type buildings. If the attic is not intended to be used as a living room, then the correct roof insulation is done only on the floor, dividing the roof with the house, without equipping additional side skate protection. When using a soft roll insulation on the attic floor, boarding ladders are installed for walking. The thickness of the thermal insulation is selected depending on the type of the enclosing structure and the climatic zone.
The main components of the broken roof, which require insulation:
- Attic overlap.
- Rocks of the roof.
- Fronton walls.
Roof insulation of the attic
The standard thermal insulation of the cold roof is absolutely not suitable for the conditions of the attic house, in which the attic space is used as living rooms. In this case, the "cake" of thermal insulation is close, all the crate should be treated with antiseptics and fire retardants for hanging fire protection. The materials inside the dwelling must be safe and without a specific odor. We equip the fans with ventilation to remove excess moisture.
Scheme of thermal insulation of the roof of the attic house from the bottom up:
- The lower inner layer is gypsum board or decorative panels.
- Arrangement of the lower crate.
- Steam insulation layer.
- Layer of thermal insulation.
- Roofing membrane with diffusion properties.
- Ventilation gaps.
- Upper crate.
- External protective layer - roofing.
Warming of the roof of a wooden house
There are some features that concern the construction of houses for the construction of wood. It is undesirable to produce the insulation of the wooden roof in the first year of construction, until the full shrinkage of the building occurred. First, the detected defects are eliminated, and then the remaining activities are allowed. For work in a wooden house, most modern materials are suitable, but for any choice the roof insulation must be made according to the right technology offered by their manufacturers.
Warming of the balcony roof
Thermal insulation is actual in the presence of a glazed balcony, when there is a desire to maximally protect the remote structure from the cold, turning it into a cozy place for rest. Polyurethane is fixed to the ceiling with glue, double-sided tape and dowels, and when working with a mineral wool, it is necessary to equip the crate. The insulation of the roof of the private balcony will be better if the seams are sealed with foam. Steam insulation is produced by foam polyethylene with a sheet thickness of up to 1 cm. At the finish stage, the ceiling is covered with plastic panels, lining or decorative tiles.
Thermal insulation of the roof of the bath
Private baths are erected with attic, single-deck and double-sloped panel roofs. In this room, the microclimate differs by hanging humidity, making thermal insulation, we must install a vapor barrier layer of aluminum foil or impregnated with linseed oil packed cardboard. The main attention is paid to joints, where materials with different technical properties meet - foam concrete with wood, metal parts with wood, brick walls with boards.
Thermal insulation of the roof from inside the steam room:
- We produce on the ceiling fastening guides with a step of 59 cm (1 cm less than the width of the heater).
- If the material is foil, then it should be laid with foil inside.
- Install the vapor barrier.
- Joints are glued with foil tape.
- An air gap of 1-2 cm is provided by the installation of a crate.
- The thermal insulation of the roof is completed by fastening to the lath of decorative finishes of waterproof material.
Warming of the garage roof
To improve the conditions in the garage use all the thermal insulation materials - minvat, polystyrene, foam. An effective way to cope with this task is to insulate the roof with foam. It is possible from the inside to sew up space with shields from boards or plywood, and then fill it with a liquid compound, in attic roofs the material is more convenient to apply from above to the overlap. The disadvantage of foam insulation is the mandatory use of special equipment, but the significant advantages of this method cover all the disadvantages.
What are the advantages of roof insulation with foam insulation:
- The composition is applied directly to the entire surface to be insulated.
- Work can be done on the roof of any structure.
- When filling with foam, no joints are formed.
- Penoizol has excellent vapor barrier and noise insulation characteristics.
- Foam does not lose properties until 50 years.
- It is not necessary to use additional materials to fix penoizol.
- Frozen foam does not support burning.
- The material is not toxic.
- Foam is not afraid of temperature changes.
- Thermal insulation foam insulation is several times faster than with other materials.
Materials for roof insulation
If the goal is to reduce the cost of light or gas and make the home comfortable, then the quality thermal insulation of the roof and the walls of the house is the best solution to this problem. At the initial stage, it is necessary to determine the choice of insulation material, the complex of preparatory works, the number of consumables and the total cost of repairs depend on this.
The main criteria for choosing the material for roof thermal insulation:
- Thermal conductivity - this indicator is important for attic buildings, the thickness of the layer laid on the overlap depends on it.
- Ecological - insulation for the roof of the house should not threaten the health of residents with dangerous discharges into the atmosphere.
- The value of the bulk weight of the material - a large load can destroy the tonic overlap.
- The ability to keep the form - the technology of work with soft, liquid and sheet heaters is very different.
- Fire safety - choose thermal insulation from a non-flammable or self-extinguishing substance.
- Soundproof qualities - are of great importance in noisy urban conditions.
Roof insulation with expanded polystyrene
Styrofoam - a harmless material with excellent characteristics, consisting of frozen and glued together the smallest plastic balls with air. The thermal insulation of the roof of a garage or other building will depend on the density of the sheets purchased and their thickness, which varies from 20 mm to 100 mm. To work with this isolator does not require skills or special equipment, it is simply and effortlessly cut into pieces, easily attached to the floors.
Roof insulation with penokleksom
A foam is called extruded polystyrene (XPS grade or EPP), obtained at high temperatures. An important advantage of this material in front of competitors is that it practically does not absorb water, moisture, even with prolonged contact, can penetrate only into the thin outer layer of the sheet. The warming of the cold roof with foam foam gives good results. Even with repeated freezing and thawing, it does not lose its properties for more than 50 years. Specialists note the resistance of the plates to compression, ease of installation (the presence of a dowel-splice groove), high environmental friendliness.
Disadvantages of a penoplex:
- Much more expensive foam.
- Damaged by rodents.
- It is forbidden to produce heat insulation near sources of open fire.
Roof insulation with mineral wool
To produce high-quality insulation of the roof from the inside with mineral wool is convenient, it does not require such precise cutting as foam, it is easily compressed in the right way and squeezed between the rafters. The most important advantages of this material - it does not burn and is not damaged by rodents or insects, has good sound-absorbing characteristics. High-quality thermal insulation of the roof is obtained by laying the insulation with a density of 30 kg / m 2 in several layers along the entire width of the rafters.
Disadvantages of mineral wool:
- Poor moisture resistance - requires serious protection against wetting and arrangement of the waterproofing layer.
- Easily deformed at the slightest load - crumpled material loses properties, so attic roofs need to be equipped with walkways.
- Due to the thermal conductivity, it is somewhat inferior to polyurethane foam.
- In work with mineral wool, it is required to use protective means for respiratory organs.
- With a strong heating, the mineral wool can emit phenol.
Thermal insulation of the roof with expanded clay
Claydite is a heater of natural origin, which is not afraid of rodents and decay processes, this material has high strength and durability. A layer of baked clay in the form of gravel with a thickness of 10 cm is able to replace the wooden wall 25 cm. The best effect is obtained when using a mixture of expanded clay and foam plastic chips. Keramzit does not produce roof insulation from the inside, it is more convenient to stack loose materials from above on the floor between the attic and the living rooms. It is recommended to fill this insulation with a thickness of 14 cm-16 m.
Disadvantages of expanded clay:
- Thermal insulation of the roof with expanded clay gives a good effect, but with a large thickness creates a load on the building structure.
- Burnt clay can absorb moisture very much.
- If the integrity of the granules is damaged in expanded clay, open pores are formed, where water easily enters.