Rodents are typical carriers of very dangerous diseases for humans. Field and house mice often transmit hantavirus, which can cause hemorrhagic fever with severe kidney syndrome. Without adequate treatment, pathology can lead to irreversible complications and even death.
Mouse fever - how can you get infected?
The group of special risk of infection described by the disease includes rural residents and tourism lovers. How is the mouse fever transmitted:
- Air-dust method. The person inhales small particles with feces of the rodent-carrier.
- Contact. Damage to the skin comes into contact with any objects infected with the virus of murine fever.
- Alimaric way. Consumption of water or products infected with excrement.
The incubation period of murine fever
After infection before the appearance of characteristic signs takes 4-46 days, often this stage takes 20-25 days. The virus of mouse fever for the specified time multiplies and spreads throughout the body. Pathogenic cells accumulate in tissues and lymph nodes, provoking early symptoms. The rate at which murine fever progresses in the incubation period depends solely on the stability of the immune system. The more active it is, the longer the body will fight infection.
Mouse fever - symptoms
The clinical picture of the pathology in question has 3 stages:
- The initial. The stage lasts about 72 hours, often - less. Manifestations are nonspecific, so the diagnosis of the virus in this period is difficult.
- The oligurical. There are renal and hemorrhagic signs of murine fever. The stage lasts 5-11 days.
- Polyuric. The severity of the symptoms of the disease decreases, the recovery stage begins.
The first signs of murine fever
The early clinic of the presented infection strongly resembles an acute respiratory disease. The first symptoms of murine fever:
- a sharp increase in body temperature;
- dry mouth;
- redness of the skin on the neck and face;
- hemorrhagic rash .
Sometimes the murine fever manifests less sharply, periodically making itself felt light cough, malaise and drowsiness. In such situations, she is often confused with a commonplace cold and does not address a specialist. After 2-3 days, these symptoms are rapidly progressing, and pathology passes to the next, the most difficult, stage of development - oliguric.
Analysis for murine fever
Diagnosis of the described disease occurs when there are pronounced clinical signs of viral infection. Mouse fever is a symptom of the second stage of progression:
- pain in the head, lower back and abdomen;
- frequent vomiting;
- bloating of the intestine;
- puffiness of facial tissues;
- pastose of the eyelids;
- nasal and eye (weak) bleeding;
- decrease in pulse and blood pressure;
- deterioration of vision;
- a small volume of excreted urine, until its complete absence;
- hemorrhagic rash;
- dry skin of the body and face;
- lethargy, apathy.
After the oliguric the polyuric, the last period of development of murine fever, begins. All these signs, except for weakness and drowsiness, subsided, urine is released in increased amounts, up to 5 liters per day. Normalization of appetite and sleep indicates a gradual recovery. With the correct treatment of murine fever, the functioning of the kidneys is completely restored.
Diagnosis of the disease is carried out after a thorough examination and a detailed history. On the 5th-7th day from the anticipated moment of infection with fever, a serological blood test, a coagulogram and a general urinalysis, are additionally controlled by diuresis. In some cases, the search for antibodies (immunoglobulins M) to hantavirus is performed.
Mouse fever - treatment
Therapy of infection is developed individually and is carried out only in a hospital under the supervision of specialists. The patient is prescribed strict bed rest (up to 4 weeks) and medication. Than to treat a mouse fever:
- anticoagulants (with thromboses);
- glucocorticosteroid hormones (in severe forms).
As maintenance therapy regular infusions with glucose (5%) and physiological solution are performed, vitamin complexes are intravenously administered. Mouse fever with complications and kidney damage may require hemodialysis at the oliguric stage of progression. After restoration of the functions of the urinary system, the procedures are terminated.
With a mouse fever
If the disease is normal, without severe consequences and acute deterioration of renal activity, the patient is recommended table number 4 for Pevzner. Of the diet must be excluded:
- fatty and strong broths;
- Soups with milk, pasta, vegetables, cereals;
- meat by-products;
- canned food;
- whole milk;
- fatty meat and fish;
- pearl barley, millet, porridge;
- berries, fruits and compotes, jam from them;
- coffee, cocoa with milk;
- cold and carbonated drinks;
- dairy products;
- Flour products (except white crumbs without crust).
When hemorrhagic murine fever is accompanied by a severe disruption of the urinary system, feeding the infectious disease patient should be rich in vitamins B, C and K, diet No. 1 is prescribed. This diet is more extended, in this case are allowed:
- dietary sausages;
- raw cheese;
- low-fat ham;
- caviar of sturgeon fish species;
- sweet juices;
- Vegetarian soups with vegetables, cereals and pasta;
- fermented milk products;
- rose hips;
- coffee, tea, cocoa with milk or cream (not strong);
- Sweets, except ice cream, products from puff pastry and baking;
- yesterday's bread;
- milk soups with cereals;
- cheesecake, baked pies and biscuits without impregnation;
- Boiled meat, patties and meatballs, soufflé and zrazy;
- beef stroganoff;
- liver and tongue (boiled);
- vermicelli, pasta with butter;
- vegetables, except for mushrooms, cucumbers and any kinds that provoke flatulence;
- eggs (not fried or hard-boiled).
Mouse fever - consequences
The main complication of hantavirus is kidney damage:
- pyelonephritis ;
- uric acid diathesis.
Mouse fever sometimes provokes more dangerous consequences:
- pulmonary edema;
- cerebral hemorrhages;
- chronic insufficiency or inflammation of the kidneys.
Mouse fever - prevention
Prevent infection with the virus is easy, if you exclude direct and indirect contact with rodents. It is a mistake to believe that the mouse fever is transmitted from person to person. Hantavirus can be infected solely from animals, so it is important:
- Protect food, sources of water.
- Wash hands before each meal.
- Do not eat food damaged in mice.
- Thermally process the products.
- Check all food stored in cellars or other places available to rodents.
- Do not contact animal products.