For unknown reasons, epithelial tissues of the skin and mucous membranes sometimes degenerate into malignant neoplasms. Such tumors are more common in people of the Caucasian race of advanced age (after 60-65 years). If there is a genetic predisposition, they are diagnosed in children.
Squamous cell carcinoma - diagnosis
The described pathology progresses very quickly and metastasizes even in the early stages of development, so it is important to detect the tumor in time and immediately begin treatment. Diagnosis is carried out on the basis of examination of the patient and an anamnesis with a detailed description of the available symptoms. The most common type of cancer is squamous cell carcinoma, which looks like a large wart. It is difficult to distinguish it from a benign growth, because of which it manages to release metastases to nearby lymph nodes and organs.
To reveal carcinoma and other forms of cancer a number of studies are carried out:
- Analyzes of biological fluids (urine, blood);
- oncological panel;
- magnetic resonance and computed tomography ;
- ultrasound diagnostics.
Highly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma
Some types of tumors in structure and structure are almost identical to healthy tissues, on the basis of which they grew. Such types of oncological neoplasms are called highly differentiated ones. This squamous cell carcass is difficult to detect, so a special blood test was invented to identify specific substances that only detect tumors that are diagnosed. During the study, a squamous cell carcinoma antigen is sought in the biological fluid. Medical laboratories designate this marker as abbreviation SCC or SCCA.
Moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma
The presented form of neoplasms consists of cells that have undergone mutation. Such tumors are easier to diagnose due to their specific structure and uncontrolled division. Moderately differentiated cancer also excretes the squamous cell carcinoma antigen SCCA, but in an increased amount. High concentration of markers provides early detection of pathology and timely initiation of therapy.
Low-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma
This is the most simple tumor for diagnosis. It is a tissue very different from healthy. Low-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma consists of mutated, uneven cells with irregularly shaped cores. In its structure, normal tissues are completely absent, therefore the specified neoplasm is immediately revealed by means of a biopsy or other methods of investigation.
Squamous squamous keratinizing cancer
When a pathological cell undergoes a mutation, it begins to randomly divide, forming its non-functional clones. If squamous cell carcinoma develops with cornification, some tumor tissues begin to die. Mutated clone cells lose the ability to divide and accumulate keratin. This is manifested as the appearance on the neoplasm of thick crusts of yellowish color.
Squamous nonkeratinized cancer
In the situation described, uncontrolled division of the cell in the prickly layer also occurs, but the clones do not die. Squamous non-corroborative carcinoma is considered the most malignant type of such cancer, because its accelerated growth is constantly continuing. Pathologically altered cells do not accumulate keratin, but all the time they clone and start metastases to the lymph nodes and neighboring organs.
Squamous cell carcinoma of the skin
The majority (approximately 90%) of cases of the diagnosis in question is included in the group of cornificating tumors. Neoplasms predominantly appear on exposed parts of the body exposed to ultraviolet radiation (face, neck and hands). Squamous cell carcinoma - symptoms:
- growth or change in shape, color of birthmark , warts;
- soreness in palpation of the tumor;
- a periodic burning sensation;
- redness around the affected area;
- swelling of the surrounding skin;
- violation of sensitivity in the area of damage.
Squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix
A characteristic place of growth of this tumor is the region of a smooth transition of multilayer epithelium into cylindrical epithelium. Gynecologists suggest that squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix develops against the background of a progressive human papillomavirus. This infection in chronic form was found in 75% of patients with the described pathology. Squamous nonkeratinized cervical cancer is more common, because the structure of the multilayer epithelium places the cells in an uncontrolled cloning. Typical signs are nonspecific:
- bleeding immediately after intimacy;
- regular aching pain in the pubic region;
- violation of defecation;
- hemorrhages outside the menstrual period;
- pain during intercourse;
- problems with urination.
Squamous cell carcinoma of the lung
This type of neoplasm develops more slowly than other forms of the disease and a long period of time is not accompanied by any symptoms. Squamous cell carcinoma of the lung has spherical contours, it often grows in the root of the organ (about 70% of cases), sometimes the tumor is diagnosed in the bronchial wall. As the size increases, the cancerous tissue provokes obstruction (obstruction) of the respiratory tract. In parallel, it forms cavities with necrosis in the center and allows multiple metastases.
Pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma has such a clinical picture:
- prolonged dry cough ;
- expectoration of blood;
- frequent involvement of pneumonia and other inflammatory diseases;
- sensation of lack of air;
Squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx
The described type of malignant tumor can be of 2 types:
- Infiltrative-ulcerative or endophytic squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx - first a small tight knot appears on the epithelium, which eventually ulcerates. After a while, a built-up edge with identical consequences is again formed. Ulcers deepen and merge, forming a vast area of damage.
- Tumor squamous cell carcinoma (exophytic carcinoma). The neoplasm has the appearance of a large semicircle with a slowly moving base. It rapidly increases in height, can be covered with yellow horny cells, scales and warty structures.
- hoarseness of voice;
- labored breathing;
- dry cough;
- sensation of the presence of a foreign object in the throat (lump);
Squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus
The risk of occurrence of this type of malignant neoplasm increases with progressive gastroesophageal reflux disease . Against the backdrop of casting gastric juice into the esophagus, a small tumor forms on its walls, which gradually reaches an impressive size. Because of nonspecific signs, the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma often begins already in the late stages. Common Symptoms:
- pains in the thoracic region of a compressive character;
- dysphagia (difficulty swallowing);
- bloody vomiting;
- unpleasant odor on exhalation, especially if the tumor is necrotic or a bacterial infection has joined;
- belching with slices of food;
- blood streaks in the feces.
Squamous cell carcinoma of the rectum
The tumor of the described localization by clinical signs strongly resembles hemorrhoids, so patients turn to the oncologist already at the late stages of pathology progression. Carcinoma of the rectum is often combined with other organ damage - cracks in the anus, inflammation and thrombosis of the veins. Specific symptoms:
- sensation of a foreign body in the rectum;
- itching inside or near the anus;
- pain in the anus;
- problems with defecation, mainly constipation or their alternation with diarrhea;
- "Sheep feces" - a chair in the form of small hard balls;
- Stitching pain in the left lower abdomen;
- the discharge of blood after the emptying of the intestine, the biological fluid is bright red, can cover the fecal matter;
- soreness in sitting and walking.
Squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue
There are 3 anatomical types of such a tumor:
- Infiltrative. The growth looks like a seal, identical in height to healthy tissues. Squamous cell infiltrative cancer is a tuberous tumor, has blurred borders and provokes severe pain syndrome during movement and palpation of the tongue.
- Ulcerative. On the organ there is at first a small erosion, which gradually deepens and expands.
- Papillary. Squamous cell carcinoma is clearly visible visually, the tumor has the form of a ball, clearly protruding above the surface of the normal epithelium. This type of neoplasm grows slower than the above species.
Cancer of the tongue - symptoms:
- pain in the oral cavity;
- non-healing ulcers on the surface;
- burning in the mouth;
- putrefactive breathing;
- difficulty opening the mouth and eating;
- copious salivation;
- weight loss;
- swelling or swelling of the face, neck;
- loosening and loss of teeth;
- bleeding gums;
- the presence of seals or knots in the mouth.