Among possible complications of gestation at an early stage, ectopic pregnancy is one of the first places. This violation is characterized by an improper implantation process. Consider it in more detail, we will name the signs and identify the causes of the pathological process, we will tell how to determine the ectopic pregnancy.
Ectopic Pregnancy - Species
This pathology is accompanied by an implantation process outside the uterine cavity. This happens in various departments of the reproductive system. Diagnosing such a pathology as an ectopic pregnancy, where the fetal egg can be localized, the doctor determines using ultrasound. Depending on this, the following types of violations are distinguished:
- abdominal ectopic pregnancy - the future embryo enters the abdominal cavity (0.3% of cases);
- ovarian - the fetal egg is formed in the ovary (0.2%);
- tubal pregnancy is a common type of disorder (more than 98% of all cases of ectopic pregnancy);
- cervical - implantation occurs in the cervical canal (0.01%);
- implantation in the body of the uterus (0.25% of cases).
Apparently, a common type of disorder is tubal pregnancy. It is formed when, after fertilization in the fallopian tube, the egg does not move to the uterine cavity, but begins to be implanted into the wall of the tube. According to statistical observations of obstetrician-gynecologists, in most cases, pathology affects directly the right tube.
Ectopic pregnancy in the ovary
Implantation of the fetal egg in the ovary is fixed less frequently than the ectopic pregnancy in the tube. With this type of disorder, the future embryo attaches to the surface of the sexual gland. By the mechanism of development of such pregnancy, the primary type is allocated - when the egg is retained in space next to the ovary, the secondary one is a repeated attempt to implant the fetal egg after the tubal abortion that occurred.
As a result of such changes, the blood vessels are destroyed, which cover the sexual gland - bleeding develops into the cavity of the peritoneum. This condition requires urgent medical care, surgical intervention, hospitalization within an hour from the moment of the beginning. The outcome depends directly on the timeliness of the treatment.
Ectopic pregnancy in the abdominal cavity
This type of abnormality, like an ectopic pregnancy of the abdominal cavity, often has a secondary character - it develops as a result of repeated implantation of the fetal egg. In this case, it can be attached to any organ located in this region. Often this happens on the surface of the peritoneum. This type of pregnancy is rare, has high risks of developing the infectious process, carries a threat to the health and life of the expectant mother. A frequent complication of such a pathology is bleeding.
The fetus, which begins its development in the abdominal cavity, quickly dies. However, midwives recorded rare, single cases, when the kids survived, but had different pathologies of development. The delivery in this case was carried out by an operative route - a cesarean section . Often children were born with pathologies incompatible with life and died after several hours.
How can I determine an ectopic pregnancy?
This complication of the gestation process is difficult to diagnose. This is due to the fact that at first pregnancy practically does not differ from normal - the yellow body synthesizes hormones, in terms of which the woman determines the fact of conception. The process fails at the implantation stage, which occurs on the 7-10th day from the moment of conception. The fetal egg does not reach the uterine cavity and begins to be implanted outside of it.
Talking about how to determine the ectopic pregnancy in the early stages, doctors pay attention to the type of violation. So the progressing uterine pregnancy does not have a clear clinical picture - the pregnant woman feels well, there are no signs of pathology. On its own, a woman can only detect a disturbed ectopic pregnancy - a condition in which a tube breaks, becomes infected, bleeding.
Investigating the problem, trying to figure out how to determine the ectopic pregnancy by external signs, the doctors identified the following frequent non-specific signs of the disorder:
- delay in menstrual flow;
- the appearance of bleeding not associated with menstruation;
- soreness in the lower abdomen, lower back;
- nausea and vomiting;
- engorgement of mammary glands;
- change of taste.
The clinical picture of frolic pregnancy is completely dependent on:
- its type (tube, ovarian, abdominal);
- degree of hemorrhage.
At what time is the ectopic pregnancy determined?
To timely start treatment, to exclude the development of complications, the expectant mother should know on what term it is possible to determine an ectopic pregnancy. The first signs of a violation appear at the end of the first month of gestation. If you have at this time pain in the lower abdomen, incomprehensible vaginal discharge, you need to turn to the gynecologist, who is watching the pregnancy.
Talking about how to determine an ectopic pregnancy in the first place, doctors put ultrasound. So already on 4,5-5 weeks of pregnancy the doctor can diagnose this pathology (with vaginal ultrasound). When examining the small pelvis through the anterior abdominal wall, an ectopic pregnancy can be established only at the 6-7 week gestation. Until this time, it is not possible to detect pathology.
Can a gynecologist determine an ectopic pregnancy?
To presume the pathological process the doctor can and by gynecological examination. The main feature is the discrepancy between the size of the uterus and the expected duration of pregnancy. In this case, the doctor can determine such a violation as an ectopic pregnancy, the diagnosis of which should be complex, and when examining a woman in a gynecological chair:
- pronounced cyanosis of the vagina, cervix;
- flattening of the neck and softening;
- protrusion of the posterior fornix;
- sharp soreness with palpation of the posterior fornix and attempt to shift the cervix forward;
- the uterus is slightly enlarged and mobile.
Can I determine an ectopic pregnancy for HCG?
With this complication of gestation, as an ectopic pregnancy, hCG has a normal concentration at first. Because of this, the pregnancy test is positive. Define the pathology can only be by examining the level of the hormone in the blood with dynamic observation. Doctors conduct several tests in a row, with a small interval. When assessing the results of proper growth, the concentration of hCG is not observed, but there is some lag behind the prescribed standards.
Is it possible to determine an ectopic pregnancy on ultrasound?
On such a pathology as an ectopic pregnancy, ultrasound is the main method of investigation. It helps not only to identify the disorder, but also to determine the location of the fetal egg, to establish the type of violation. Depending on where the embryo is located, on the monitor the doctor notes the deformation of the following structures:
- in the uterus and ovaries - in the appendages;
- in the cervix - the cervical canal assumes a bulbous appearance;
- in the abdominal region - protrusion of an organ resembling a tumor.
How to determine an ectopic pregnancy at home?
Talking about how to independently determine an ectopic pregnancy, midwives indicate the complexity of diagnosing such a violation. Often, the pregnant woman does not suspect anything, and the complication is revealed at a late stage - the breaking of the fallopian tube, bleeding. To exclude the failure of the implantation process, to reveal a pathology, a woman must undergo mandatory ultrasound for a period of up to 12 weeks.
Ectopic pregnancy - discharge
Pointing out how to determine an ectopic pregnancy in the early stages of intrauterine development, it is worth noting the pathological discharge from the vagina. They are uninvolved, they have a smearing character. Thus the shade of blood quite often differs from a menstrual that should guard a woman. Often the process is accompanied by soreness in the lower abdomen, which acquires a paroxysmal character. Over time, the volume of blood can increase, indicating the development of uterine bleeding.
Ectopic pregnancy - where does it hurt?
With this complication of the gestational process, like an ectopic pregnancy, the pain may initially be absent. Their appearance is associated with the growth of the embryo, resulting in deformation of the organ into which it was implanted (tube, ovary, peritoneum). So drawing pain often irradiates into the area of the anus, the waist, the inner surface of the thigh. With the development of bleeding, the pain becomes unbearable, at times the woman loses consciousness. Vomiting develops, blood pressure decreases. Skin pale. Urgent hospitalization is required.
Does the test determine an ectopic pregnancy?
Speaking about the ways of determining the pathology, suggesting a woman how to determine the current ectopic pregnancy, doctors point out the inefficiency of express diagnostic tools. To begin with, it is necessary to say that their action is based on determining the level of the hormone hCG. This compound is synthesized when the embryo is located outside the uterus. Proceeding from this, we can conclude that the pregnancy test determines an ectopic pregnancy, when the concentration of the hormone drops sharply (after a positive negative result is noted).