Tuberculosis is an infectious disease that is transmitted by airborne droplets, less often through food or objects. The causative agent is Koch's wand, which affects various organs, most often lungs. The bacterium is very stable in the external environment and can be active for 1.5 years. When ingested, the stick may remain inactive for a sufficiently long time. Symptoms of tuberculosis may not be expressed, for a long time a sick person may not even suspect the presence of the disease. Also, the signs of tuberculosis can be masked for other diseases. In this regard, in school and when hiring, you must make preventive diagnosis of tuberculosis. Almost a third of patients have no signs of tuberculosis at the first stages of the disease, therefore, treatment is complicated. Therefore, it is very important to recognize the first signs of tuberculosis, which will significantly increase the chances of curing this disease.
Methods for diagnosing tuberculosis depend on the presence of signs of the disease. When symptoms of tuberculosis appear, you should contact a specialized institution where you can get a check-up. Due to the fact that the symptoms may be similar to the symptoms of pneumonia and other diseases, differential diagnosis of tuberculosis is required. For preventive purposes, the diagnosis of tuberculosis in children is the Mantoux reaction, in adults - fluorography examination of the lungs. The most accurate and fast results are obtained by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) diagnosis of tuberculosis, but for such a survey, expensive equipment is needed, which is not available in all institutions. The advantage of this method of examination is that the result is known within 25 minutes and allows revealing even hidden forms of the disease.
Symptoms of tuberculosis
Depending on the location and form of tuberculosis, the symptoms may vary. The symptoms of tuberculosis in adults are identical with the symptoms of tuberculosis in children. The manifestation of the disease is more affected by immunity and individual characteristics of the body.
The first signs of tuberculosis are a slight increasebody temperature in the evening, which is accompanied by a strong sweating, decreased appetite, heart rate increases. A blood test can show an inflammatory process. Against the background of other deterioration of well-being, a sign of tuberculosis in children may be a decline in school performance. Signs of tuberculosis in adults are more difficult to identify, as they are easily confused with signs of many other diseases characteristic of older age groups.
The symptom of tuberculosis, which can be identified by examination, is tuberculosis - curdled lumps formed in affected areas.
Most often, the disease primarily affects the lungs, and then, through the blood, the infection can get into other organs.
In lung lesions, in addition to general symptoms, chronic cough and hemoptysis are observed. The body weight decreases, the face becomes pale and pointed.
At a tuberculosis of a brain and the central nervous system the first week disturbance of a dream, irritability is observed. By the end of the week, headaches and vomiting begin. With the defeat of the meninges, there is tension in the neck, back pain, if lying down try to tilt the head or stretch the legs.
Symptom of tuberculosis of bones is pain and decreased mobility in affected areas.
When tuberculosis of the skin appears tubercles and nodules, which gradually increase and break through.
When the digestive system is affected, blood is observed in the feces, constipation, diarrhea, and abdominal pain.
When the genitourinary system is affected, back pain starts, urinary retention, urine with blood.
If symptoms of tuberculosis occur, treatment should be started immediately. The more timely the help is given, the greater the chance of avoiding complications and preventing secondary contamination of other organs. Even if the symptoms are not expressed and are of a general nature, it is necessary to conduct a survey in time to identify the disease in the first stages. Times when the diagnosis of tuberculosis was a sentence, long past. Modern preparations and equipment cope with this disease, the main thing is a professional approach and taking care of one's health.