Cataract treatment is a common practice, as it is one of the most frequent ophthalmic diseases today. The main sign of the ailment is a deterioration in vision. Patients with cataracts see everything as vague and muddy - as if they are looking at the world through fogged glass or cellophane.
What is cataract - its causes and consequences?
This disease is a clouding of the lens, which leads to poor eyesight and can lead to its complete loss. Changes, as a rule, occur gradually, but it is advisable to start treatment of cataract with the appearance of the first symptoms. This will make it possible to prevent many unpleasant consequences, like:
- Phacogenic glaucoma. This complication is a secondary increase in intraocular pressure. It is accompanied by headaches, unpleasant sensations in the eye.
- Obstetious amblyopia. This disease is common in children and is a consequence of congenital cataracts. It disrupts the healthy work of the retina and can lead to disability at an early age.
- The phacolytic iridocyclitis. The diagnosis is made in the presence of an inflammatory process in the iris and ciliary body.
What causes cataracts? Causes of lens of the eye lens has the following:
- injuries and mechanical injuries;
- transferred infectious diseases;
- hereditary predisposition.
Congenital cataracts - causes
Opacity of the lens of the eye occurs in two main mechanisms. The organs of vision can initially be formed incorrectly. This is due to intrauterine infectious diseases, which the mother will suffer in the early stages of pregnancy, or chromosomal pathologies. The second "scenario" of the development of the disease is the defeat of the already formed lens, which is caused by metabolic disturbances, trauma and the impact of various external damaging factors.
This is why the cataract treatment may still be required:
- herpes virus;
- cytomegalovirus infection;
Cataract - causes at a young age
Early clouding of the lens in most cases begins with a background of eye injuries. The problem is that it stays in the right place thanks to very thin ligaments. From strong shocks and shakes, the latter can be torn, and the lens nutrition is disturbed. In addition, cataract in young people can develop due to poor environmental conditions. Increased pollution of the environment affects immunity and metabolic processes, which can not but affect the condition of the eyes.
In some cases, cataract treatment is required because of the effects of ultraviolet rays. The sun has now become particularly aggressive, because the massive radiation is quite capable of provoking premature aging of the lens. And the danger of ultraviolet is both in summer and in winter (the rays reflected from the snow sometimes are even more dangerous).
Other causes of "early" cataracts are diabetes and hereditary predisposition. An increased level of glucose leads to an increase in the composition of the liquid that is washing the lens. As a consequence - formed the so-called diabetic cataract. Important and hereditary - if someone from close relatives suffered from an ailment, a person should pay special attention to their eyes.
Repeated cataract after lens replacement - cause
It also happens that the disease develops even after the clouded lens has been replaced. Secondary cataracts of the cause of the onset are simple - an ailment appears as a result of growth of inferior lens fibers that remain in the eye. In fact, this phenomenon is associated with the cloudiness of the capsular sac, where the artificial lens is implanted.
Treatment of cataract without surgery
Many patients with cataracts are interested in this question - is it possible with such a problem as lens opacity, treatment without surgery. There is no unequivocal answer to it. The fact is that conservative methods can be used, but they can only benefit if it was started in the early stages, when the disease has not yet developed. In other cases, only surgical cataract treatment is effective.
Cataract - treatment, drops
If the problem was found on time, the doctor can offer conservative replacement therapy. Initial cataract treatment involves the introduction of substances into the eye, due to the lack of which the disease develops. Since this is a chronic disease, it will be necessary to apply drugs almost constantly. Prolonged interruptions can lead to progression of the disease and impaired vision.
Such a problem as clouding the lens of the eye, treatment involves the following drops:
- Taufon ;
- Quinax ;
- Taurine ;
Cataract treatment with folk remedies without surgery
There are recipes with which you can resist the clouding of the lens, and in alternative medicine. They have been used for a long time, and if the therapy is started on time, surgical intervention and regular visits to the ophthalmologist can be avoided. Cataract treatment of folk remedies allows a variety. A simple and affordable medicine is a honey lotion. Before use, the product should be mixed in equal proportions with water.
Treatment of cataract with dill is no less effective. Plant seeds boil, and then in gauze or linen bags are applied to the eyes before going to bed. Similarly, a decoction based on the leaves of burdock, mother-and-stepmother, initial letters and other medicinal herbs is used. In addition, people with cataracts should be added to the diet of blueberries and from time to time to drink potato broth.
Treatment of cataract - operation
Surgery is the most effective way to treat lens opacity. The latter during the operation is removed and replaced with an artificial transparent lens. Before curing cataracts, it is necessary to calculate all the parameters of "replacement" and specify the nuances concerning anesthesia. As a rule, patients are given local anesthesia, but some people are advised to take a sedative before the procedure.
Cataract treatment with laser
With the diagnosis of cataract eye laser treatment is recommended to many patients. This kind of therapy destroys the clouded lens right inside the eye. No cuts are assumed in this case. After crushing with the aid of ultrasound, the microparticles of the lens are discharged outside, and an artificial lens is placed. The great advantage of laser treatment is that during the operation the doctor sees a clear three-dimensional projection of the eye on the screen, which ensures the control of the accuracy of the procedure.
After the lens is replaced, the patient's eyes quickly recover. Due to the fact that the operation is non-invasive, complications are prevented. Among other things, laser therapy is more than all other types of operations suitable for implantation of modern lenses, for the installation of which you need an ideally prepared "nest". Otherwise, with the slightest shift, visual impairment may occur.
Surgical cataract treatment
Nowadays, cataract treatment methods allow for such:
- Extracapsular extraction. It consists in the removal of the nucleus of the lens and the main lens masses. In this case, the posterior capsule remains in the eye, thereby ensuring the safety of the barrier between the anterior part of the eye and the vitreous cavity. Minus operations - in great trauma.
- Ultrasonic phacoemulsification. It is carried out using a phacoemulsifier. The device is inserted into the anterior eye chamber through a small incision. Then, under the influence of ultrasound, the substance of the lens becomes an emulsion and is removed from the eye. The final touch is the installation of the lens.
- Intracapsular extraction. Because of the increased traumatism, this technique is almost not used now. Its essence lies in the removal of the lens and capsule through a large incision by freezing them to a cryoextractor device.
Secondary cataract after lens replacement - treatment
The need for re-therapy appeared after the first operation to remove the lens . Treatment of secondary cataracts involves capsulotomy. This procedure is the excision of a capsule that has undergone changes. While this method is considered to be the only effective in the fight against secondary cataracts. Excision is carried out in different ways.
With the diagnosis of secondary cataract treatment with a laser is one of the priority. Using a laser, a large round hole is made in the posterior capsule of the lens. The latter passes along the visual axis, so that a ray of light can penetrate directly to the central zone of the retina. As a result of this manipulation, the patient's vision is noticeably improved.