Causes of constipation in children
Difficult stool or lack of it for a long time can have a different etiology. Determining the true reason why the child has constipation, you need to take into account his age, lifestyle, the nature of intra-family relationships. In newborns and children up to one year, it can not be excluded that violations of defecation can be of an organic nature. These are congenital pathologies - an elongated sigmoid colon (dolichosigma) or lack of innervation of the large intestine (Hirschsprung's disease), which are accompanied by other symptoms:
- anxious and whiny behavior;
- increased flatulence;
- neurological disorders;
- poor appetite.
Collecting and not being able to exit stool can be due to the presence of adhesions, tumors, polyps. But these are isolated cases, which are diagnosed very rarely in childhood and require surgical treatment. Adhesive obstruction develops mainly after surgery. In general, constipation in a child is functional or psychological.
Psychological constipation in the child
In children who are beginning to get used to the new conditions of life, for example, to a kindergarten or school, there may be difficulties with defecation of a neurogenic nature. This is due to the fact that preschool children can suppress desires and tolerate out of the home environment, and in the meantime, fecal masses accumulate, thicken, making the act of defecation morbid. To know how to cope with psychological constipation in a child, parents need to find out what has become a provocative factor. There are several options:
- wrong attitude of teachers to the requests of the baby about the need to go to the toilet. This problem often arises in the junior classes, teachers counting children as adults, do not let them go to the restroom at lessons, and at the time of change the child may not have time to go "great";
- mockery of peers. The kid can be afraid and shy to shit in a public toilet, especially this is important for shy and uncommunicative children;
- lack of necessary conditions (inconvenient or poorly washed toilet, cabin without a door, a large queue).
To resolve the constipation of neurogenic nature will help a confidential conversation with the child, which will give adults a clear idea of the real cause of what is happening. In neglected cases it is rational to resort to the help of a psychologist. Problems with defecation can be avoided if in a more complex adaptation period it is more to communicate with the child, to encourage him, to discuss pressing problems as they arise. It is important to discuss with the teacher the rules of going to the toilet, and make sure that there are no prohibitions on the naughty requests of the baby will not follow.
Functional constipation in children
Slowing the movement of digestive waste and the formation of "congestion" in children of different age categories can occur for functional reasons. These include:
- malnutrition with predominance of sweet and fatty foods;
- insufficient intake of liquid, especially ordinary water;
- sedentary lifestyle;
- violations of the natural biocenosis of the intestine (more often after antibiotic therapy);
- food allergy;
- insufficiency of the pancreas and other gastrointestinal organs;
- helminthic invasion;
- rickets and, as a consequence, a decrease in muscle tone;
- disorders in the thyroid gland;
- blunting of the reflux reflex caused by diseases of the nervous system;
- treatment with drugs that affect the work of the digestive tract;
- frequent use of laxatives and cleansing enemas.
The compaction of stools can be a one-time phenomenon. This happens when the baby was eating something that fixed, got sick, he had a high fever - the water-salt balance was broken. It is necessary in such cases to establish a diet, drink more liquid - the regularity and consistency of the stool is normalized in the next time. Single violations do not require special treatment.
Chronic constipation in children
With all responsibility it is necessary to approach the problem if constipation in the child is a permanent phenomenon. Here we can not do without a survey aimed at establishing the cause of the delay and compaction of fecal matter. Therapy is selected individually, taking into account the age of the child, the etiology of the disorder, the concomitant diseases. Necessarily parents should know how to help the child with constipation at home. As one-off measures are effective:
- candles from constipation for children with glycerin, they are allowed for use by children from birth;
- Cleansing enema with boiled water at room temperature and several drops of glycerin;
- light stroking tummy tuck (babies).
If the child has a prolonged constipation, which is accompanied by severe pain, rumbling, weakness, headache, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, an increase in temperature, an enema can not be made categorically. In such cases urgent consultation of the doctor is necessary. Dangerous first aid measures, when the baby releases blood from the anus or is observed calming.
Constipation in an infant
Up to a year the crumbs go in different ways. A mushy stool after eating is the prerogative of babies on breastfeeding. Artificial children cough less often, and the consistency of the chair is firmer. If the baby does not empty the intestines for 1-2 days, we can assume that he has constipation. Confirm the fears of such symptoms: pain, bloating, rumbling, loss of appetite. With constipation, the child has a hard stool, sometimes decorated with peas, and has a putrid smell. Act of defecation for the baby is painful: he can cry, grunt, push, knock on the legs. The reasons for this condition can be:
- non-observance of a diet by a nursing mother;
- abrupt substitution of breast milk with a mixture;
- lack of milk;
- weak tonus of the muscles of the intestine or its complete absence;
- insufficient intake of liquid (when fed with a mixture);
- after the introduction of complementary foods in the child, constipation becomes a frequent problem in the case of incorrect and untimely acquaintance with adult food;
- lactase insufficiency;
- an allergy to cow protein.
What should I do if my child has constipation?
Problems with the emptying of the intestine in the baby can not be ignored, because the accumulation and retention of fecal matter adversely affect the overall condition of the child and his health. The baby becomes sluggish, low-active, the appetite decreases, and other signs of intoxication appear. How to treat constipation in children, tells the pediatrician. Therapy is selected individually, depending on the etiology of the disorder, age and other characteristics of the patient.
Laxatives for constipation for children
Medications of this category doctors try to appoint only if absolutely necessary, since such drugs have an impressive list of side effects: addiction, allergy, diarrhea and so on. The safest way for small patients is a drug for constipation for children based on lactulose called Dufalac. Dosage of the doctor is selected individually, and the duration of treatment is limited to 2 weeks.
In addition to laxatives, complex therapy to eliminate constipation often includes:
- Preparations that activate the digestive tract-prokinetics (Domperidone).
- Spasmolytics (No-shpa, Papaverin).
- Cholagogue (Hofitol).
- Bifido-lactobacilli (Linex, Lactile, Bifidumbacterin).
Diet with constipation in children
Regular and painless bowel emptying is impossible without adjusting the diet. Nutrition with constipation in children implies a complete rejection of:
- baking, whole milk, rice porridge, pasta, bananas, and apples with skin;
- products provoking gassing (cabbage, beans, tomatoes);
- enveloping soups and cereals;
- caffeine-containing products and beverages (coffee, tea, chocolate, cocoa).
Be sure to include the following products in the menu from constipation for children:
- yogurts without additives, sour cream;
- whole wheat bread;
- Vegetables, fruits, cereals with coarse fibers;
- meat of low-fat varieties, eggs, butter;
- a large amount of liquid (purified water without gases and dyes).
Folk remedies for constipation in children
Bitter infusions and broths of herbs are unlikely to please the child. But there are in the treasury of traditional recipes, alternative remedies that will help to eliminate constipation in the child:
- tasty prunes, dried apricots, raisins of water - have long been considered excellent laxatives;
- good results help to achieve treatment of constipation in children through oat jelly;
- older children can be offered a mixture of honey and aloe juice - slightly bitter, but effective.