Many plants contain fragrant chemicals based on terpenes, which have medicinal qualities. Volatile or essential oils have been used by mankind since antiquity, their application began even before the invention of writing. Modern production has been improved, ensuring the production of maximally pure compounds.
How to get essential oil?
There are 4 ways to extract volatile substances from the plant base. Natural essential oils are produced by such methods:
- Distillation. Raw material is placed over boiling water. Steam containing concentrated esters is collected in a special container - the Florentine bottle. It is arranged so that the oils are lighter than water collected in a separate layer from above. Excess fluid is drained through the lower tube. Heavy ethers descend to the bottom, water is removed through the top of the bottle.
- Anfleurage or maceration. Special glasses (tables, frames) on both sides are lubricated with a mixture of beef and pork fats with a layer of 3-5 mm. Between the "battery" is placed vegetable raw materials for 48-72 hours. The spent residues are replaced with a fresh base. The resulting "lipstick", saturated with essential oils, is extracted with alcohol. The mass is freezed and filtered to remove fat from it. The alcohol is distilled off under vacuum.
- Extraction. In vegetable raw materials, a solvent is added, which helps to separate the essential oil from other components and does not mix with it. Often used liquid carbon dioxide. At the final stage, the extractor is distilled.
- Spin. Sometimes a mechanical stimulus helps to get the ether. The vegetable substrate undergoes spinning under a hydraulic press.
Essential oils - properties and applications
Each chemical substance contains terpenes and terpenoids (derivatives) - hydrocarbons with a large number of unsaturated carbon bonds in the molecules. The absence of strong compounds of atoms causes high biological activity of esters. Due to this they have found application in many spheres:
- food industry;
- chemical production;
The main advantage of the presented volatile compounds is their absolute naturalness and safety. They rarely cause allergic reactions and negative side effects, are well tolerated. Before use, it is important to carefully study the properties of essential oils - the table below contains the necessary information on the effects of these chemicals on the human body.
Essential oils for hair
Upon contact with the skin, these compounds of terpenes and terpenoids stimulate local blood circulation and produce a warming, irritating effect. For these reasons, cosmetologists often advise using essential oils for hair growth and combating their loss. Volatile substances can cope with other common scalp problems.
Esters contribute to improved nutrition of the bulbs and facilitate the access of oxygen and vitamins to the follicles. They allow us to strengthen the weakened roots, normalize the functioning of the sebaceous glands. It is preliminary important to study the selected essential oils (properties and application) - the table will help you to understand what kinds of chemicals are suitable for hair care.
Essential oils for the face
Pure terpenic compounds are not used for skin care, rarely they are applied pointwise. Any volatile face oil is added to the cream, milk, base vegetable fat and other cosmetics for enrichment. Concentrated esters are too aggressive product. When in contact with the epidermis of the face, they can provoke irritation, peeling, even chemical burns .
For each type of skin a separate set of essential oils (data in the table) is suitable. Their properties should correspond to the fatness of the epidermis, its sensitivity, current problems. Wrong choice of a natural cosmetic product is fraught with deterioration of the skin. Before the development of individual care, you need to find out what specific essential oils are essential - properties and application: the table below will help.
Essential oils for nails
The volatile compounds described are often used by the manicurist. Natural nail oil helps whiten their surface, helps to heal the damaged cuticle. In the composition of the baths it helps to avoid dryness and fragility of the horny plates, perfectly disinfects. The use of ethers provides nails with shine and rapid growth. The most useful types of oils:
- grapefruit ;
- bergamot ;
- tea tree;
- rose flower.
Essential oils from cellulite
Presented chemicals contribute to the cleavage of fat cells. In addition, they actively affect the lymphatic system and blood circulation, normalize metabolic processes and appetite, so essential oils are often used for weight loss in general, and not only in problem areas. Massage of skin areas with cellulite using the natural fluids under consideration helps to quickly get rid of the "orange crust" and improve the appearance of the skin, make it more elastic and dense.
- geranium ;
- juniper ;
Essential oils for colds
With the unpleasant clinical manifestations of acute respiratory and viral diseases, the described volatile substances easily cope. The main thing is to choose suitable essential oils, the properties of each remedy should correspond to the existing symptoms and causes of the disease (data in the table). Some terpenic compounds better help against bacterial inflammation, other fluids are effective against viruses. To make the right choice in the pharmacy, you should study in detail the essential oils - properties and application, the table contains the information necessary for this.
Essential oil from fungus
In addition to disinfecting, antibacterial and antiviral properties, the agents are effective against different kinds of mycosis. They prevent the reproduction and spread of yeast fungi on the skin and nails. Ethers help exfoliate dead cells of the epidermis and regulate the level of sugar - the main source of nutrition for pathogenic microorganisms.
Effective oil from the fungus can be selected from the following list:
- tea tree;
- black cumin;
- oregano ;
Essential oil from mosquitoes
Some types of terpenes discourage blood-sucking insects. Essential oil-repellent is no less effective than any potent chemical, but much safer. From mosquitoes will help get rid of the following types:
- citronella (the strongest ether);
Natural volatile oils repel and other dangerous blood-sucking insects, including vectors of severe viral diseases. In the season of their activity or on the eve of a hike to their habitats, it is necessary to carefully investigate suitable essential oils - repellent properties and application: the table below will help to choose the most effective options.
Essential Oils - Aromatherapy
There are three mechanisms of influence of this branch of alternative medicine:
- Pharmacological. Components of essential oils affect the production of hormones, proteins, enzymes and acids in the body, which leads to certain reactions at the chemical level.
- Physiological. Ethers produce a restoring, soothing or toning effect on tissues and organs.
- Psychological. Aromalamp for essential oils emits fragrant fumes. With their inhalation, each person has an individual emotional response, which can provoke physiological or mental changes.
The naturalness of the aromatherapy procedure does not guarantee its safety. Before practicing such an alternative treatment, it is important to find out exactly which volatile compounds are appropriate in a particular case, carefully study the selected essential oils: properties and application - the table below provides useful information on this issue.
Essential oils for the bath
The beneficial effects of saturated water vapor on the body can be strengthened with natural supplements. Volatile oils under the influence of high temperatures penetrate into the respiratory tract and circulatory system, so they are more active. They are useful for the skin, immunity, lungs and bronchi, help to relax and stabilize the nervous system.
The most popular in the sauna or sauna is essential oil of fir and similar pine plants, but it is worth trying other types:
- tea tree;
Essential oils are aphrodisiacs
Erotic aromatherapy acts exclusively individually. Smells awaken different emotions in each person, so when choosing a natural aphrodisiac, you need to listen to your own feelings. It is important to select the funds in accordance with gender. For example, the essential oil of neroli is considered female. It enhances attraction, stimulates sensuality and prolongs the moment of orgasm. The table lists the best esters for male and female erotic aromatherapy.
Most popular essential oils - rating
The demand for these volatile substances depends on their extensive use and safety. The best oils are universal, do not cause allergic reactions and are compatible with most other esters. Among several hundreds of items can be identified 10 often purchased. The most popular options based on the above tables:
- Essential oil of lavender. Relieves stress, pain, heals the skin, strengthens the immune system.
- Essential oil of tea tree. Helps from most inflammations of infectious nature, disinfects.
- Essential oil ylang-ylang. Eliminates spasms, normalizes the heart and respiratory system.
- Essential oil of lemon. It has antibacterial, antiparasitic, restorative properties.
- Essential oil of orange. It has a beneficial effect on the dermis, fights against cellulite and striae.
- Essential oil of mint. Eliminates pain and nausea, tones up, promotes hair growth.
- Patchouli essential oil. Accelerates the healing of wounds, increases the elasticity and elasticity of the skin.
- Essential oil of rosemary. It is a natural analgesic, improves cerebral circulation.
- Rose essential oil. Has antifungal, antibacterial and antiviral effect, soothes.
- Essential oil. Stabilizes blood pressure, effectively anesthetizes.