Type 1 diabetes is a serious chronic disease. It is associated with impaired glucose metabolism. With CD1 there is a deficiency of insulin - a hormone responsible for the absorption of sugar by the tissues - and an increase in the concentration of glucose. The problem develops due to the fact that immunity by mistake begins to attack beta cells and destroys them.
Types of diabetes mellitus
All varieties of the disease are similar, but they have significant differences. Classification of diabetes mellitus involves a division into these types:
- insulin dependent;
- Diabetes caused by the intake of insufficient amounts of nutrients in the body;
- SD, caused by the action of drugs or chemicals;
- gestational diabetes .
1 type of diabetes mellitus
It is also called insulin dependent. Type 1 diabetes mellitus is a condition in which, for various reasons, beta cells die in the pancreas - those responsible for the production of insulin. As a result, the body has a deficiency of the hormone. There is an insulin-dependent diabetes when the immune system begins to behave incorrectly. This can be caused by hereditary causes. But it is important to understand: you can not inherit diabetes, only the predisposition to ailment is transmitted at the gene level.
2 type of diabetes mellitus
Non-insulin-dependent variety of the disease, as a rule, is diagnosed in people over 30-40 years old, suffering from excess weight. Their pancreas produce insulin, but the body's cells react incorrectly to it because of decreased sensitivity. The longer the type 2 diabetes develops, the lower the production of the hormone. This is explained by the fact that an increased level of glucose is detrimental to the cells that produce the substance.
Causes of type 1 diabetes mellitus
This disease is called autoimmune, because the main problem on which it develops is a violation in the work of immunity. Causes of diabetes mellitus can be hereditary. But even if both parents suffer from CD1, the child can be born absolutely healthy. Sometimes the causes of type 1 diabetes are of viral origin and develop against the background:
- chicken pox;
- viral hepatitis.
Many viruses damage beta cells, but in most cases the body can restore everything. Only in the most difficult situations, when large-scale areas of pancreatic tissues producing insulin are destroyed, recovery is impossible. There are microorganisms that produce proteins similar in composition and structure to beta cells. Destroying them, immunity eliminates and part of the pancreas. And even when the virus is neutralized, the body continues to struggle.
Type 1 diabetes - symptoms
As a rule, the signs of the disease are acute. The typical symptoms of type 1 diabetes mellitus look like this:
- strong constant thirst (you always want to drink, even after just drank a glass of water);
- dry mouth;
- frequent urge to urinate (up to ten liters of fluid per day can be allocated to patients);
- excessive sweating;
- sharp mood swings;
- general weakness;
- a noticeable decrease in efficiency;
- deterioration of vision.
When type 1 diabetes is just beginning, patients notice an increase in appetite. But they do not gain weight. On the contrary, in less than a couple of months, patients drop to 10-15 kg. Improvement of appetite is gradually replaced by anorexia, which is due to ketoacidosis. The latter is characterized by the appearance of a smell of acetone in the mouth. The condition is accompanied by attacks of nausea, vomiting, dehydration, abdominal pain.
Diagnosis of type 1 diabetes mellitus
In most cases, it is very simple to determine the problem. The fact is that many patients come for help only when insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus type 1 has passed into a neglected stage, and all the symptoms have become clearly pronounced. If the questions remain, the specialist must first exclude all diseases that have similar manifestations-such as diabetes insipidus, hyperparathyroidism, chronic renal failure, or psychogenic polydipsia. To determine the sugar - juvenile - type 1 diabetes, it is necessary to conduct a series of blood tests:
- on sugar ;
- on tolerance to glucose ;
- on glycated hemoglobin .
How to treat type 1 diabetes?
The effectiveness of therapy depends largely on the patient. How to cure type 1 diabetes? For this, the patient needs to perform the following actions:
- Before the start of treatment, all the prescribed tests should be taken.
- You need to buy a glucometer. The device should be high-quality, accurate and operate correctly.
- The level of sugar should be monitored constantly. For results, start a special diary.
- Diabetes mellitus type 1 can be cured only by adhering to all the doctor's recommendations.
- Analyzing changes in blood sugar levels, you should adjust your diet.
If the patient clearly follows all the instructions, he will soon be able to notice the positive changes. To understand that juvenile diabetes ceases to progress and recedes, it is possible on such factors:
- The level of sugar in the blood comes back to normal.
- Improved indicators in the analyzes.
- The weight is normalized (decreases or rises, depending on the individual characteristics of the organism).
- The patient begins to feel more alert.
- There are no jumps in blood pressure and fatigue.
- In the body, there are beta cells (you can check their presence using a blood test for C-peptide).
Symptomatic treatment of diabetes mellitus
Since it is not yet possible to completely get rid of CD1, treatment of type 1 diabetes is more symptomatic. Such therapy is aimed at regulating blood sugar level, correcting body weight, preventing the occurrence of complications, providing the patient with conditions that are comfortable for life and work.
Insulin for diabetes
Insulin therapy with CD1 is currently the most popular method of treatment. It is most effective to conduct it in the regime of multiple injections. How to prick insulin , selects a specialist. The choice is usually made from two main schemes:
- Traditional therapy involves the introduction of two injections of intermediate action and one - a short one between them. Preparations are injected half an hour before meals. In the morning, about 60 to 70% of the daily dose should be administered. This scheme is effective, but it has a drawback - traditional therapy requires strict adherence to diet and regular exercise.
- The intensive scheme consists in the introduction of two times per day of intermediate insulin and three injections of a "short" preparation. As a result, the daily dose of the drug of prolonged action is less, and simple - more.
New in the treatment of type 1 diabetes
Medicine is constantly improved. Methods of treatment of CD1 are also being improved. American scientists have developed a new vaccine. Thanks to her, treatment of type 1 diabetes can become more effective. The injection is designed to enhance the production of antibodies. It blocks the production of the immune response. Simply put, the vaccine can recognize "dangerous" blood cells and directs an attack of immunity on them, rather than on healthy elements. As a result, the cells of the pancreas have the opportunity to recover, and the secretion of their own insulin in the body is normalized.
Diet for type 1 diabetes mellitus
Since SD1 develops against the background of a general high slagging of the body in order to overcome the ailment, several basic rules for food intake must be observed:
- The patient should count the calories in the products.
- Food should be high quality and natural.
- Nutrition for type 1 diabetes should be divided into 5 to 6 receptions.
- Instead of sugar, you must use a sweetener.
- The bulk of carbohydrates should be for breakfast and lunch.
When the disease can be eaten:
- fresh nuts;
- porridge (oatmeal, pearl barley, buckwheat);
- soy milk;
- bezdozhzhevuyu baking;
- mineral water;
- unsweetened tea and coffee.
Diabetes with type 1 diabetes excludes:
- semi-finished products;
- fast food;
- pasta and flour.
Complications of type 1 diabetes mellitus
Any disease is terrible for its complications. If left untreated, type 1 diabetes can lead to:
- hypoglycemic coma;
- diabetic micro / macroangiopathy - complications of diabetes mellitus associated with impaired vascular permeability, increased fragility and increased risk of thrombosis;
- early development of cataract;
- the appearance of pain in the joints and the limitation of their mobility;
- damage to the kidneys and the appearance of blood cells in the urine (and in difficult cases and the development of kidney failure).
Pregnancy for Type 1 Diabetes
Immediately need to clarify that type 1 diabetes is not a contraindication to pregnancy. But also to plan children for women with such a diagnosis should be in advance and very carefully. It is best to start training for six months - a year. In this period it is important to achieve a stable compensation - the values of normoglycemia - and keep it at an appropriate level. This is necessary for the pregnancy to proceed normally, and there are no complications.
Throughout pregnancy, insulin requirements will fluctuate. The amplitude of the oscillations is individual. Some pregnant women do not even notice the changes. Often, future mothers suffering from diabetes mellitus suffer from toxicosis with vomiting. During this period, you need to be cautious, because after the injection, carbohydrates are not properly supplied.
On the day of birth, it is better not to introduce a background insulin. Or you can greatly reduce the dosage. To what level - it is necessary to discuss with the endocrinologist. Immediately during childbirth, sugar can grow. This is due to the strong excitement of a woman. In some cases, glucose falls - because of the heavy load. Lactation is also accompanied by a decrease in sugar, so before feeding the mother should take an additional portion of carbohydrate food.