To perform a normal respiratory process, it is required that the clearance of the bronchi be of sufficient diameter. With a sharp contraction of smooth muscles, it narrows, which provokes bronchospastic syndrome or bronchospasm - the symptoms in adults are quite a dangerous condition, which sometimes leads to anaphylactic shock, suffocation.
How to recognize bronchospasm?
If there is a suspicion of a syndrome without obvious symptoms, a history and pathogenesis plays a decisive role. If there is bronchial asthma and emphysema, diagnosing an attack is much easier. It is important to remember that often there is bronchospasm in bronchitis and allergies, as well as against the background of acute bronchiolitis. In the latter case, the disease is inflammatory, affects both medium and small bronchioles.
Primary clinical manifestations:
- shortness of breath , choking;
- a feeling of severe shortage of air;
- blueing of the nasolabial triangle;
- swelling of veins on the neck;
- expansion of the thorax;
- cough with the release of viscous mucus of light color or transparent;
- a feeling of heaviness in the chest;
- elongated exhalations, often with a wheezing sound, wheezing;
- loud breathing;
- the retraction of the skin in the intercostal spaces and the wings of the nose;
- pale complexion, with a blue near the lips;
- fear, fear of the patient;
- acceptance by the person of an unusual compelled position (sitting, with a support on hands);
- sneezing with the release of liquid clear mucus.
All these symptoms occur due to the difficulty of airflow into the lungs and, consequently, lack of oxygen in the blood, hypoxia.
Signs of bronchospasm
Identify the earliest clinical manifestations of pathology by the following factors:
- mood change, depression;
- sleep disorders;
- inhalation of air without difficulties, but complications with exhalation;
- wheezing, wheezing sounds in the chest region;
- inability to fill the lungs with air (the patient breathes mainly the stomach).
In this case, special attention should be paid to this type of syndrome as a hidden bronchospasm - the symptoms are absent until there is some irritant, for example, dust, allergen, virus or bacterial infection. The condition in question is characterized by suddenness, a rapid increase in suffocation. The victim immediately begins to boil, it's very noisy to breathe, when you exhale, whistles are clearly audible. As a rule, latent bronchospasm occurs with the following diseases:
- connective tissue dysplasia;
- cystic fibrosis;
- multiorgan pathology;
- interstitial pneumonia;
- Pollinosis ;
- nodular periarterritis;
- prolonged passive smoking;
- adenoids (relapse with inflammatory process).
Also, the symptoms of paradoxical bronchospasm may be unexpected. This condition is observed in the treatment of this pathology and attempts to eliminate the tension of smooth muscles with the help of bronchodilators. Especially often spasm appears when using:
The listed preparations should produce a relaxing effect and prevent obstruction of the lungs, but instead their use provokes an increase in the clinical manifestations of the pathological condition. So, instead of the expected action of bronchodilator, paradoxical deterioration of well-being and blocking of air access, a strong oxygen starvation. Often, the described bronchospasm accompanies allergic reactions to medications or some of their components.