If you are faced with a disease such as cytomegalovirus, what it is and whether it is dangerous for a person - these are the very first questions that you want to ask a specialist. Modern diagnostics has progressed significantly forward in the detection of previously unknown infections. Cytomegalovirus is cunning, does not always give a vivid clinical picture, and how to treat cytomegalovirus infection in order to completely rid the body of the virus is an urgent task for physicians.
What is cytomegalovirus?
Cytomegalovirus infection (CMV) or cytomegaly is a relatively young infection discovered in 1956. Microbiologists have identified this virus as belonging to the family of herpesviruses - a human herpesvirus type 5 virus . Herpesvirus family is the most extensive of all available infections to date, and every second inhabitant of the Earth suffers this or that way. The source of infection and the reservoir for the virus are only human.
The prevalence among people is:
- 10-15% among young people;
- up to 50% - age group from 30 years and above.
Stability of cytomegalovirus in the external environment is insignificant, it does not tolerate temperature changes, freezing:
- at t + 4 ° - it is active up to 3 months;
- + 22 ° C (room t °) - up to 2 weeks;
- + 37 ° C - complete inactivation of the virus for 2 weeks;
- -22 ° C - loses its properties after 3 weeks;
- with ultraviolet radiation kills in 7 minutes.
How is cytomegalovirus transmitted?
How is cytomegalovirus (CMV) manifested, what is it, and what transmission routes exist - these issues are very relevant, since the virus has a damaging effect on the body. Getting into the human body, CMV "prescribes" in cells for good. The detected cytomegalovirus infection in pregnant women, children and debilitated elderly people makes it difficult to choose the means for treatment. Basically, the way of penetration of the virus is the biological environment of the body. Here's how the cytomegalovirus infection is transmitted:
- blood - during transfusion, organ transplantation, through wounds and cuts, surgical interventions, during childbirth (from mother to child);
- saliva - air-drip way (sneezing, talking to the virus carrier), kisses;
- semen, vaginal lubrication - during sexual intercourse;
- Milk - the child becomes infected with breastfeeding.
What is dangerous cytomegalovirus?
Immune cells of a person stand guard over his health, and falling into the organs and systems of a healthy person with strong immunity, cytomegalovirus remains in a dormant state (the stage of the virion) for a long time, sometimes throughout life. But the trends of modern ecology strongly worsen the protective forces of the body, so the disease is gaining momentum. CMV is a danger to people:
- with reduced immunity functions (children, elderly, weakened patients);
- in combination with other infections, so-called "explosive mixtures": CMV with HIV , CMV with hepatitis B, C causes fulminant generalized development of diseases;
- pregnant women - it is known that cytomegalovirus in pregnancy can cause mutagenic and teratogenic effects in the developing fetus.
Acute cytomegalovirus infection
The manifestation of any disease includes several phases:
- prodromal period (latent);
- manifestation of symptoms (acute phase);
- recovery or transition to a chronic form with periods of remission.
The acute form of CMV is manifested from the moment of infection to the presence of obvious symptoms, on average from 20-60 days. With blood transfusion can develop more quickly. Congenital cytomegalovirus infection is acquired through the placental transfer or during the passage of the fetus through the birth canal at birth. The acute form of CMV in a newborn is dangerous because it can provoke:
- development of jaundice of the newborn and enlargement of the liver;
- splenomegaly ;
- hemorrhage into internal organs;
- damage to the central nervous system.
Chronic cytomegalovirus infection
The chronic form of CMV is manifested by exacerbation of the disease against a background of various factors:
- seasonal manifestation (autumn-spring);
- long-term stressful effects;
- hypothermia ;
- malnutrition (digestible carbohydrates, starchy foods, excess salty and acute);
- promiscuous sex life.
In chronic form, the cells where the virus penetrated primarily are destroyed: salivary glands, blood cells, lymphoid tissue, and mucous membranes of the genital organs. The cells become gigantic in size, this phenomenon is called megalocytosis. Over time, "swollen" cells lose the ability to share and die - bursting, causing inflammation of surrounding tissues, into which the virus is further introduced.
Cytomegalovirus - symptoms
Cytomegalovirus what is it in symptoms, and how to recognize that the body has been attacked by an insidious infection? Symptomatology of cytomegaly acute and chronic is nonspecific and similar to manifestations of other infections. An experienced physician may suspect the presence of the disease for a number of symptoms, but the final word is always behind laboratory studies of the patient's biological material. Finding out how cytomegalovirus infection manifests itself - its symptoms often depend on the body's immune response.
Latent cytomegalovirus infection
Manifestations of cytomegaly are absent, a person feels healthy, rarely with an exacerbation there may be a mononucleose-like condition in which latent CMV infection is characterized by the following symptoms:
- increased fatigue;
- frequent headaches;
- sudden chills and muscle tremor;
- cold sweating;
- frequent rhinitis;
- local pain in muscles, joints;
- gradual decrease in vision (defeat of eyeballs);
- enlargement of lymph nodes at the site of introduction of the virus;
- violation of the menstrual cycle in women, mucous and purulent discharge.
With a latent form, the symptomatology grows gradually, at first in the form of separate manifestations, but over time the body becomes less clear. The periods of remission alternate with the reactivation of symptoms. Symptoms of CMV in children with congenital and acquired forms (become noticeable at 2-3 years of age and reach heyday by 8-9 years):
- hearing and vision impairment;
- frequent ARVI;
- propensity to epileptic seizures;
- muscle and joint pain.
Generalized cytomegalovirus infection
The consequences of cytomegalovirus infection in a generalized form are of serious damaging character for the organism as a whole. The clinical picture with this form is very bright, the symptoms develop rapidly. The generalized form is rare, with severe illnesses: HIV infection, infectious and autoimmune hepatitis, serious malfunctions in the immune system. Symptoms of cytomegalovirus infection in adults:
- fever with profuse sweating;
- rapidly developing pneumonia with breathing disorders, debilitating cough;
- a stomach ulcer with perforation;
- defeat of cranial nerves;
- inflammation of the retina of the eyes;
- multiorgan lesion.
Symptomatic in children born with CMV:
- speech impairment;
- blindness (atrophy of the optic nerves);
- congenital malformation;
- defeat of the central nervous system (violation of cognitive functions).
Diagnosis of cytomegalovirus infection
Modern laboratory studies in the shortest time reveal the causative agent of the disease, because the earlier the treatment is begun, the more successful its results. The analysis on cytomegalovirus is important and for preventive purposes, when young spouses plan a pregnancy. During pregnancy, diagnosis is the key to the woman's peace of mind for the normal development of her unborn child.
Blood for cytomegalovirus
Specific antibodies to cytomegalovirus are detected during a blood serological test. This type of study is aimed at detecting IgG / IgM immunoglobulins:
- IgG - the detection of this class of antibodies does not carry great diagnostic value. This is an indicator that the organism has met with the infection and coped. But another value of IgG antibody begins to acquire if their titer exceeds the norm by 4 times - signaling that the infection is in full swing, or a primary encounter with the virus took place.
- IgM is a very informative indicator of the presence of an infectious agent in the body, unlike IgG, these antibodies are synthesized by the body first, appear in the blood after a few days, when the symptomatology is not yet manifested.
PCR analysis (polymer chain reaction) - detection and separation of the genome of the pathogen DNA for the purpose of studying is considered a highly effective diagnostic tool in the detection of CMV:
- efficiency and accuracy up to 95%;
- the analysis is performed within 2 days;
- High sensitivity helps to identify the disease at the earliest stages.
Cytomegalovirus in the smear
Diagnosis of infections can not be effective, based only on one study. A versatile approach allows us to obtain a real diagnostic picture. Cytomegalovirus in women is detected by scraping the vaginal mucosa and urethra. Cytology of the smear helps to detect antibodies to the virus and to detect cells that have undergone morphological changes as a result of the damaging effect of the virus.
Cytomegalovirus - treatment
The main guarantee of health is prevention, but how to treat cytomegalovirus if the disease has already been identified? The doctor's task is to maximize the clarification of patients: how to identify cytomegalovirus, what it is, what consequences can be if the treatment recommendations are neglected and the doctor's recommendations are not used. Treatment of cytomegalovirus infection looks like this:
- Mononucleosis and latent form of treatment does not require.
- Symptomatic therapy is aimed at eliminating symptoms.
- With intrauterine (congenital) form of CMV, a drug ganciclovir is prescribed.
- Prescribed drugs interferon series.
- Immunoglobulins are used to correct immunity.
- When ulceration in the mouth requires rinsing with a solution of furacillin, decoctions of herbs.
- Antiviral ointments (acyclovir, tebrofenic, oxolinic) are used in herpetic rashes on the external genitalia.
- Massive infusion therapy is used in a severe clinical picture.