Even the initial symptoms of influenza are pronounced. They serve as an alarm signal, indicating that you need to immediately seek medical help, because this disease is very insidious. It affects people of different ages and sex. Every year, hundreds of thousands of people die from it and the complications caused by it.
Types of influenza
There are several varieties of this infectious disease. The type of illness is determined by which influenza virus has entered the body. The ways of infection are:
Influenza A type
The virus of this type affects not only people, but also animals. Bright representatives of infectious diseases of this group are "avian" and "swine" flu . A virus of this type provokes a disease of moderate and sometimes severe severity. The insidiousness of infectious diseases of this group is that the A virus can quickly mutate, forming a new antigenic structure. Often the disease becomes epidemic.
Influenza A of type B
Diseases provoked by such viruses are dangerous only for people. They do not spread on animals. Although the influenza B virus also has the ability to mutate, it occurs much less frequently than in class A. The frequency of changing the antigenic structure is every ten years. Periodicity of epidemics - in 5-6 years. They may precede the outbreak of influenza A or simultaneously flow with them. The peculiarity of diseases caused by pathogens of this group is that they spread to a limited territory. In other words, they are of a local nature.
Influenza virus type C
The pathogen of this group causes diseases accompanied by less serious symptoms (in some cases, occur almost without any signs). Like a class B virus, it infects only humans, while not posing a threat to animals. Influenza C does not cause an epidemic. In addition, it does not have serious consequences. However, to date, the virus-provoker is still little studied.
Influenza virus - symptoms
The incubation period for such infectious diseases can last from 3 hours to 3 days. Most often from the moment of infection to the appearance of the first symptoms, 1 day passes. The less the virus enters the body, the longer the incubation period lasts. In addition, the rate of development of the disease affects the state of the body's defense system. The stronger the immunity - the more time passes from the moment of appearance of the first signs after infection.
At the initial stage, the symptoms of the flu are as follows:
- headache ;
- increased sweating;
- an aching in the bones;
- an unpleasant aftertaste in the mouth;
During an exacerbation, the initial signs of influenza are supplemented by such symptoms:
- increased body temperature;
- dry cough, which is accompanied by pain in the chest;
- hyperemia of the face;
- excessive dryness of the skin;
- noise in the ears;
- myalgia .
However, there are also dangerous symptoms of influenza. If they are available, you should immediately call an ambulance. Anxious are the following symptoms:
- high temperature, which lasts more than 5 days;
- loss of consciousness;
- the appearance of dyspnea;
- a severe headache that does not subside even after taking pain medications;
- rash on the skin.
Flu - severity
What signs are manifested, largely depends on the stage of the disease. There are such forms of influenza:
- Light - accompanied by a slight rise in body temperature (up to 38 ° C). At this stage, signs of intoxication may be either mild or nonexistent.
- The average weight - the temperature rises to 39.5 ° C. At this stage, there is intoxication, nasal congestion, redness of the eyes and other symptoms.
- Heavy form - accompanied by a rise in temperature to 40 ° C. The symptoms at this stage are pronounced: they are the same as the symptoms of influenza at the initial stage, only manifest with greater force.
- Hypertensive form - with her temperature rises above 40 ° C. There is a lesion of the central nervous system. In some cases, respiratory failure occurs.
- The lightning-fast form is dangerous because of the rapidity of the development of the disease. Can lead to death.
Pain in the flu
Discomfort sensations appear from the very beginning after infection. The first symptoms of flu are pain. It appears even before the body temperature rises. The localization area can vary:
- rib cage;
- muscles of the legs;
- eyes and so on.
It is the reaction of the body's defense system to the intoxication accompanying the disease. A distinctive feature is that the rise in temperature occurs sharply. Only a few hours, and the indicator indicates a strong deviation from the norm. How much the temperature keeps influenza depends on the following factors:
- severity of the disease;
- the body's defense system;
- reception of antipyretics.
Intoxication with influenza
This symptom is a by-product of the work of the immune system, whose activities are aimed at eliminating the focus of infection. Blood, washing the affected tissue, removes the dead pathogenic microorganisms. When the flu is severe intoxication. This is due to the fact that viruses reproduce at a record rate, resulting in a huge number of them. To neutralize, the body needs to expend a lot of energy. To intoxication are connected and other symptoms of the flu. One of them is an increase in body temperature, manifested by chills and fever.
How to distinguish the flu from colds and SARS?
These diseases have many similarities. However, they also have differences. On how to distinguish influenza from cold, you can understand on the basis of the course of symptoms:
- Temperature - with a cold, it is slightly more than normal, with ARVI - reaches 38 ° C, and when the flu rises to 40 ° C.
- Intoxication - the common cold is devoid of this symptom, and in acute respiratory infections and influenza it is pronounced.
- Nasal congestion and runny nose - observed from the first hours with a cold. With ARVI, this symptom begins to manifest itself a couple of days after intoxication, and with flu - as a complication.
- Painful sensations - arise with ARVI and flu. With a cold, they are absent.
Only a doctor can accurately diagnose. Most people do not know that they are ill with the flu. Carrying the disease on their feet, they think that this is just a cold. To judge what it really is, you can by the length of the recovery period. After a cold, a person quickly returns to the usual way of life, not recalling the indisposition. Recovery after the flu is prolonged for a long time. The organism after such stress has serious consequences.
Complications of influenza
In the group of increased risk of negative consequences are such groups of persons:
- small children (up to 4 years);
- pregnant women;
- people suffering from heart and lung diseases;
- the elderly;
- those who suffer from chronic diseases (sinusitis, otitis, bronchitis);
- people with problems in the immune system.
Such complications after a flu are more often:
- edema of the brain;
- pneumonia ;
Influenza - what to do?
Treatment of this disease should be carried out under the supervision of a doctor. It is advisable before the visit to the doctor not to take anti-inflammatory and antipyretic drugs, as this will distort the clinical picture of the ailment. After examining the patient the doctor will decide where the person should be treated - at home or in the hospital. In addition, he will prescribe a therapeutic course.
The main conditions for a quick recovery are bed rest and strict adherence to doctor's recommendations. Here's how to treat the flu:
- antiviral agents (Tamiflu, Remantadine);
- antipyretic tablets against influenza (Ibuprofen, Aspirin, Paracetamol);
- electrolyte solutions (Regidron, Humana);
- antibacterial agents (Macrolides, Fluoroquinolones);
- antihistamines (Citrine, Suprastin);
- coughing (ACTS, Lazolvan);
- drugs that facilitate nasal breathing (Otryvin, Naphthysine, Pharmazoline).
During treatment, you need to drink more: at least 2 liters of fluid per day. It is desirable that the temperature of the consumed beverages is 37-39 ° C. So the fluid will quickly suck in and bring maximum benefit to the body. As a drink suitable dogrose tea, compote of dried fruits, chamomile or lime decoction. This drug perfectly eliminates the symptoms of influenza and improves the general condition.
As an auxiliary therapy, people use "drugs". Their use should be carried out under the supervision of a doctor, because the prescribed medicine for influenza may be incompatible with an alternative remedy. This not only does not help to get rid of the disease, but will also aggravate the patient's condition. For this reason, self-medication is not permissible. Admission of medicines and folk remedies should be carried out only under the supervision of a doctor.
Prevention of influenza
It is easier to prevent the onset of the disease than to treat it or to fight negative consequences that have arisen against it. Vaccination against influenza is not a panacea, which gives a one hundred percent guarantee that the disease will not develop. A timely vaccination helps to ease the course of the ailment and reduces the likelihood of complications.
To not get sick, you need to strengthen immunity. A good protective system affects the course of the disease: it alleviates the symptoms of the onset of the flu. Strengthen immunity will help the following activities:
- correct balanced nutrition (it is desirable that the diet was fresh vegetables and fruits);
- regular hand washing after visiting the streets and public places, before meals, after the toilet and so on;
- reception of multivitamin complexes (Decameweith, Hexavita);
- regular airing of the room and wet cleaning;
- moderate physical activity (walking, charging);
- lubrication of the nasal mucosa with Vaseline or Oxolin ointment before going out into the street during the epidemic;
- rejection of bad habits;
- minimization of stress;
- use of personal protective equipment during the epidemic (mask);
- full sleep and rest.