Syndrome, which is characterized by a violation of venous outflow from the leg area, is called venous insufficiency of the lower extremities, which is quite common in women. Especially the probability of developing deep and superficial veins during pregnancy is very high: 7-35% of expectant mothers have a similar problem, and with each subsequent pregnancy the disturbance of venous outflow only progresses.
The internal surface of the veins has valves that, when the person is standing, do not give blood under the influence of gravity to drain all the time down, providing it with a reverse outflow and movement towards the heart. And venous insufficiency of the lower extremities, the symptoms of which are given below, indicates that the described mechanism is broken.
Causes of venous insufficiency
Insufficiency of veins develops against the background of the defeat of the valvular apparatus, and also when:
- the capacity of the venous bed decreases (thrombosis of deep veins, the vein is compressed from the outside by neoplasms);
- the venous bed is overflowed with arterial blood (congenital angiodysplasia or the consequences of operations on the vessels of the lower extremities);
- there is a failure of the heart ( cardiomyopathy , ischemia, complication of myocarditis, heart disease).
According to the rate of progression, acute venous insufficiency of the lower limbs and a chronic form are classified. In the first case, the symptoms are very pronounced; the body perceives a violation of the outflow of blood as a shock and reacts painfully. For chronic insufficiency is characterized by a smooth development of the clinical picture - the body includes compensatory functions, trying to adapt, but after a while is exhausted.
The risk factors include pregnancy, overweight, reduced physical activity, age.
Symptoms of venous insufficiency of lower extremities
If we talk about chronic form, then it is appropriate to distinguish several stages:
- The patient complains of a feeling of heaviness in the legs; on the skin there are so-called. Vascular asterisks (telangiectasia), enlarged veins are visible.
- The veins begin to expand varicose - that is, with the formation of nodules.
- Lower extremities swell, there are nocturnal convulsions.
- To persistent edema, eczema, hypo- or hyperpigmentation (skin discoloration and scar appearance) is attached.
- The skin changes appearance, there is a healed trophic ulcer.
- The trophic ulcer passes into an open form.
If there is an acute venous insufficiency, these symptoms develop rapidly and are accompanied by painful sensations.
It should be noted that varicose veins as the most well-known circulatory disturbance in the legs is just one of the manifestations of such a broad concept as venous insufficiency.
Treatment of venous insufficiency of the legs
As a symptomatic therapy, doctors recommend wearing compression underwear - it provides a return flow of blood, not allowing it to stagnate in the lower limbs. Linen is appropriate to wear and at rest, and under load. If you have sedentary work, you should periodically get up and bend the ankle joints, as well as follow the normal weight.
Appropriate treatment of the so-called. phlebotrophic drugs - pills for venous insufficiency are not the most effective means of fighting it, although in recent years, pharmaceuticals in this direction are moving forward. They help to lift the heaviness in the legs and the pain of special ointments and local action gels.
Good results are given by such procedures as:
- laser therapy;
- surgical removal of the vein;
- endoscopic vein removal;
- bypass surgery;
- restoration of valve operability.
Such treatment is appropriate in the late stages of venous insufficiency.