The name "art therapy" is translated from Latin as "art treatment". This area of psychotherapy is relatively young, but is rapidly developing due to the effect that is achieved during treatment. It has many kinds and subspecies, which open wide opportunities for getting rid of psychological problems .
What is art therapy?
Initially, it was about the picture therapy, that is, the treatment of fine art, but later appeared other forms of creativity - singing, dancing, acting, modeling, and others, which help a person not only relax and distract from vital tasks, but also get deeper to know themselves , its inner "I", thus getting rid of its complexes and contradictions, improving the mood, harmonizing the state of mind. Art therapy does not have undesirable side effects and does not cause resistance in a person, because in this case the process itself is important, not the result.
What is art therapy in psychology?
This concept was introduced by a British doctor and artist Adrian Hill, who worked with tuberculosis patients and noticed that drawing helps them to fight the disease. Art therapy in psychology was also used during the Second World War in relation to children released from concentration camps. Today it is conducted in the form of individual and group activities. Art therapy can be done, even without leaving home, buying a coloring-antistress, invented by Joanna Busford.
Objectives of art therapy
Passing the course of treatment with art, the client realizes self-knowledge, self-expression and self-analysis, which allows to harmonize his mental state . Therapy with creativity aims to improve the psychological and emotional background, relieve stress, get rid of fears and phobias, aggression, anxiety, apathy, depression, improve vitality and mood.
In addition to harmonizing the mental state of the psychologist with the elements of art therapy, the following tasks are pursued:
- To reveal the creative potential of a person, his talents and abilities.
- Speed up recovery in many diseases.
- Establish contact between the therapist and the client, establish a trusting relationship between them.
- Help the patient concentrate on internal experiences and learn to control their emotions.
- Help a person to adapt socially.
- Give impetus to the expression of their feelings and thoughts that a person can not or does not want to express in the usual way.
What are the advantages of art therapy?
Art therapy affects the mind gently, unobtrusively, because the process of treatment itself is similar to hobby. Often the patient is in a depressed state and it is difficult to establish communication, and the possibilities of art therapy allow one to express his "I" through visual art. The method of such treatment is based on the principle that the content of the patient's internal "ego" is reflected in the visual images at the moment when he sculpts, draws, dances or sings, resulting in harmonizing the state of the psyche.
Such treatment does not cause the client to reject or reject, which is very important for people in a state of stress. It is always voluntary and safe. In the process of projecting inner experiences on his creation, a person does not realize that they unconsciously go outside. If we consider the process from the point of view of psychoanalysis, then its main mechanism is sublimation. Through artistic visual images and objects, the unconscious interacts with consciousness, and the therapist helps the patient understand what his "unconscious" wants to tell him.
Types of art therapy
This technique is of increasing interest, which creates the prerequisites for expanding its borders and the emergence of all the new "tools" of medical art. Methods of art therapy include:
- isoterapy - painting and drawing;
- color therapy - the person is exposed to light of various color scales;
- music therapy, which consists in listening to various compositions;
- sand therapy - drawing with sand;
- video therapy - means viewing a video in which the hero displays the same problem;
- game therapy - in the process of the game the necessary mental functions are formed;
- bibliotherapy - this method uses literature for word treatment;
- skazkoterapiyu - the composition of fairy tales, the analysis of already existing works;
- Maskoterapiju - the volumetric image of the face of the patient is applied, allowing to direct its emotions and experiences in the necessary channel;
- dramatherapy, that is, dramatization, playing a plot;
- phototherapy - photographing, creating collages;
- dens therapy - dancing;
- art-synthesis - it combines painting, versification, cartoon, color, mask, phototherapy, etc.
Art therapy for women
At a modern pace of life, when people are regularly stressed, art therapy helps them understand themselves, their place in life and find ways to fulfill their desires. Art therapy for adults provides an opportunity to strengthen their own energy, gain self-confidence and peace of mind. Through artistic visual images, a picture of one's own life is created - the kind of person that wants to see it.
Art therapy for the elderly
The direction of treatment is always chosen by a specialist, given the complexity of each type of creativity. And if teenagers are more suited to playing in an amateur theater or dancing, then art therapy for the elderly involves choosing quieter and easier techniques that are easy to manage, and for which no special skills are needed. When working with the elderly it is very important to encourage a person to start and not strive to achieve a specific result. This is the most difficult stage, because many people at this age no longer believe in their strength, besides they think that this requires a special talent.
Art therapy - exercises
There are a lot of ways to solve your internal problems. Here are some of them:
- When working with a child, ask him to draw his fear. To frightening turned back, it must be made funny and funny. For example, to draw a crocodile bow, and an evil dog pink wings.
- The techniques of art therapy include an exercise called "Kalyaki Malyaki". The patient is invited to draw nonsense, and then carefully consider it and select a meaningful image, draw him, draw, and then describe the picture.
- Methods of art therapy include the "collage" technique. In the context of the given topic, glue, sculpt and draw on paper anything. The analysis is carried out taking into account the size and position of the elements, color, plot, harmony, etc.
Books on art therapy
Therapy with creative self-expression is covered in the following works:
- "Techniques of body-oriented art therapy" A.I. Kopytina . A practical guide that helps in dealing with various injuries and addictions.
- "Practice of art therapy: approaches, diagnostics, training systems" L.D. Lebedevoy . The author in a simple and accessible form gives a detailed description of the techniques of treatment of art, lists everything necessary for this, describes diagnostic techniques.
- "Therapy with creative self-expression" It's stormy . The book lists the entire range of therapeutic techniques based on art and creativity.