Many celebrities lost their medals and titles as soon as it became clear that their body contains extraneous substances. Until now, there are many questions and doubts among leading experts about whether it is possible to use doping. To answer this question, it is necessary to find out what it is and why it is used.
Doping - what is it?
Doping - is the use of banned substances of natural or synthetic origin, which allow you to achieve the best results in sports. The intake of drugs promotes a temporary increase in the activity of the endocrine and nervous systems, increases muscle mass due to protein synthesis. Such drugs are listed in a special list of the World Anti-Doping Agency. Their use leads to undesirable side effects and harms human health.
How does doping work?
Anabolic steroid hormones are the most popular type. Such doping drugs contain testosterone, which is produced by male germ cells. With the help of anabolic an increase in physical strength, muscle volume and endurance occurs. After using certain strengths with the help of drugs, they with new force raise the possibilities of the human body to a new level.
Doping in sport - "for" and "against"
For the athlete is important result, which he can achieve with the help of hard training. Therefore, all possible means are often used to achieve high results. It would be a mistake to hypocritically declare the desire to preserve health to athletes. And only sports doping allows the athlete to maintain the working capacity of the body with huge physical exertion.
Opinions of experts on whether it is possible to use dope, dispersed. Scientists who spoke for, say that:
- Permission to use doping will make sport safe, there will be a desire to develop safe and more effective drugs.
- The legalization of doping will help prevent drug overdoses and harm to athletes.
Scientists who have opposed, say that:
- Permission to dope can lead to the fact that net athletes will also begin to accept it and the integrity of the sport can collapse.
- Athletes who take dope, put themselves at great risk: cardiovascular disease, high cholesterol , drug addiction, serious liver damage, change in sex, aggression.
- Doping makes sports unattractive, it will cease to be different from any other commercial activity.
- The use of doping leads to dishonest sport, violates the very notion of equality between athletes, and success in this case is achieved not through persistent training, but through the chemical reaction of the body to the substance.
Types of doping
There are the following types of doping in sports:
- Stimulants . They contribute to increase of efficiency, blood pressure, cardiac activity, disrupt thermoregulation.
- Analgesics . They affect the central nervous system, increase the pain threshold , and the athlete in trauma is not able to understand its seriousness, which leads to even more damage.
- Beta-blockers . They help to reduce the frequency of heart contractions, have a soothing effect, improve coordination, are used where there is no need for serious physical activity.
- Diuretics . Help to quickly lose weight. Such drugs are taken in order to improve the relief of muscles and before doping control to quickly remove from the body of prohibited drugs.
- Erythropoietin improves endurance.
- Growth hormone promotes accelerated growth of muscle mass, reduction of fat layer, accelerated healing of wounds, strengthening of immunity.
- Insulin . Used in power sports.
- Anabolic steroids . They help to increase muscle mass to ten kilograms per month, increase strength, endurance, productivity, reduce fat deposits.
- Gene doping . This is the transfer of extraneous genetic material or cells into the athlete's body. Many times stronger than all other drugs that once existed.
Doping for athletes
Doping in sport dates back to the times of the USSR. In those days, doctors created all kinds of drugs to improve the physical endurance of athletes. Gradually formed a list of popular medicines:
- Erythropoietin is a prohibited dope for athletes.
- Anabolic steroids in the form of testosterone, stanozolol, nandrolone, methenolone.
- Blood transfusion - autohemotransfusion and blood transfusion.
- Stimulants in the form of cocaine, ephedrine, ecstasy, amphetamines.
Doping for the brain
Doping for chess players is represented by drugs that improve brain function, mental activity, simulators and nootropics, the former have a powerful but short-term impact, the latter have a cumulative effect, are suitable for long-term stimulation. In the first and second cases, the drugs contribute to:
- stimulation of blood flow in the brain;
- improve the quality of nutrition of brain cells;
- elimination of oxygen starvation;
- improvement of cognitive abilities;
- memory, attention.
Doping for endurance
Chemical or natural doping helps to achieve the set goals. Chemical doping for running is used in the form of analeptic agents, growth hormones, diuretics and anabolic drugs. Natural components are represented by beets, mollusks, leuzeem, St. John's wort. Each of these means contributes:
- improvement of endurance and working capacity;
- getting rid of fatigue;
- increase of tone;
- stimulation of muscle tissue growth;
- excretion of liquid.
Doping for muscle building
Doping agents help build muscle mass, they improve strength and burn fat. Pharmaceutical doping in bodybuilding is represented by the following drugs:
- Hypoxen, increases endurance by 15%, removes shortness of breath, improves utilization of oxygen in the blood, has a beneficial effect on the cardiovascular system, it is a kind of doping for the heart.
- Pentoxifylline, lowers the viscosity of blood, dilates blood vessels. Contraindicated in cardiovascular diseases and high blood pressure. The drug is issued by prescription.
- Schisandra, improves the tone of the central nervous system, improves digestion and sleep quality.
- Potassium orotate is involved in the creation of protein molecules, helps build muscle.
Doping for strength
One of the important factors for achieving high sports results is physical strength. For this, athletes use ancillary drugs:
- Actoprotectant, increases stability, has a positive effect on the nervous system, cardio-respiratory system and muscle tissue.
- Amino acids help in protein synthesis.
- "Branch chain amino acids". The effect of doping is manifested in an increase in energy by 10%, the restoration of glycogen in the muscles.
- L-carnitine increases endurance, relieves fatigue, pain, burns excess fat.
- Methionine, produces physical endurance , does not allow the body to dehydrate.
What is harmful about doping?
Doping also affects the psychological sphere, causing aggression, a thirst for victory and achievement of the set goals. But because anabolic drugs are derived from male hormones, they suppress the endocrine system of the male sexual sphere, which leads to:
- reduction of testes, their hormonal activity;
- decrease fertilization ability to complete infertility;
- deposition of fat cells, in places that are characteristic of the female body;
- increase of mammary glands.
In women hair loss occurs on the head according to the male type and hair, hair appears on the face, chest, abdomen, the voice becomes rough, low, the menstrual cycle is disrupted, the uterus becomes atrophied, the secretion of the sebaceous glands and reproductive function increases. The damage to doping in men and women is manifested in an increase in the level of cholesterol, the appearance of atherosclerosis, the development of ischemia, liver damage.
How to make dope?
If you want to do dope at home without any extra expenses, you can use the following recipes:
- Energy drink. It tones and stimulates. Brew boiling water three packets of tea in 200 ml of water. After ten minutes, pour the solution into the plastic floor of a liter bottle, fill the rest with cold water. Add 20 dragees of ascorbic acid, shake, place in the freezer. During each exercise, take the drink in small portions.
- Drink without caffeine. Take the bottle, pour in it a half liter of mineral water, dissolve in it a few spoons of honey, add the juice of one lemon, 0.15-0.30 g of succinic acid , 10-20 drops of alcohol tincture of the adaptogen. Such a drink will fill you with energy, additionally stimulates and motivates.
Doping - interesting facts
For the first time it became known about doping during the Olympic Games in 1960. The use of illicit drugs is considered to be the most important problem of modern sports and it involves a lot of interesting facts:
- During competitions in archery, athletes take the same drugs as surgeons during operations so that their hands do not tremble.
- When doping control is mandatory for women athletes is considered a pregnancy test, because scientists learned that this situation can increase some physical capabilities.
- In the 1990s of the last century, scientists took blood from the athletes, froze them, and then poured in on the eve of the competition. This helped improve blood circulation, increase endurance. At the same time, no one could detect traces of prohibited preparations.
- At the end of the twentieth century, it was proved that almost all athletes from the category of weightlifting won by using doping drugs.
Athletes caught in doping
World sports history was remembered by athletes caught in doping:
- Ben Johnson . The Canadian sprinter, the prize-winner of the 1984 Olympics, overcame a hundred-meter mark less than in ten seconds, twice broke the world record. In 1988 he was caught, disqualified for life.
- Lance Armstrong , became a seven-time champion in the "Tour de France" cycling, after a long and hard struggle with cancer. In 2012 he was convicted and disqualified for life. The Champion was forced to return all the prize, titles, but even this did not stop him from being a legend.
- Yegor Titov . Russian footballer, who in his time played in the main part of "Spartacus", then in "Khimki", and in "Locomotive". In 2004, he was disqualified for a year. According to many experts, because of the lack of Titov in the team, the team in that one performed unsuccessfully. Now Titov is engaged in coaching.