The activity of the thyroid gland is the determining factor in the normal development and growth of the human body. For its proper functioning, a sufficient amount of iodine is needed. Otherwise, endemic goiter develops - the tissues of the endocrine organ grow, it increases in size, exceeding in women 20 cubic meters. cm and 25 cubic meters. cm for men.
Causes of endemic goiter in the thyroid
As a rule, the considered pathology is observed in acute iodine deficiency in the body, especially if a person lives in a certain geographical area with a lack of this element in the environment.
Less often endemic goiter occurs under other circumstances:
- genetic problems of production of thyroid hormones;
- hereditary predisposition to an increase in the thyroid gland;
- taking drugs that interfere with the absorption of iodine;
- helminthic invasions;
- excess in food and the environment of calcium, or deficiency of copper, selenium, zinc, molybdenum, manganese, cobalt;
- presence in the diet of clogs (cabbage, turnips, rape, lettuce, horseradish, corn and others);
- infectious inflammatory processes;
- unsatisfactory living conditions (social and sanitary).
Symptoms of endemic goiter
Clinical signs of a pathological enlargement of the thyroid gland depend on the shape of the endemic goiter, its location and size. At the early stages of disease progression, no significant manifestations are present. As the tissues of the endocrine organ grow, patients complain of the following symptoms:
- well palpable or visually noticeable cone in the center of the neck;
- severe weakness and persistent fatigue;
- discomfort, unpleasant pulling sensations in the heart;
- feeling of squeezing in the region of the pharynx or neck;
- difficulty breathing, sometimes swallowing food;
- dry cough ;
- Attacks of suffocation, usually at night.
In advanced cases, severe complications of the described disease develop:
- inflammation of the thyroid gland;
- the appearance of malignant neoplasms;
- compression of nearby vessels, nerve endings, trachea, esophagus;
- bleeding in the thyroid gland;
- "The throat heart";
Diagnosis of endemic goiter
To confirm the existing suspicions of proliferation of tissues of the endocrine organ, such laboratory, instrumental studies help:
1. Blood tests:
- determination of thyrotropin, hormones T3 and T4, thyroglobulin.
- excretion of iodine in the urine.
3. Ultrasound of the thyroid gland .
4. Fine needle puncture aspiration biopsy.
5. Radioisotope scanning.
It is not necessary to take and carry out all the listed studies, in most cases, enough blood and urine tests, ultrasound diagnosis.
Therapy and prevention of endemic goiter
Treatment of the described pathology corresponds to its stage of development, the degree of enlargement of the thyroid gland.
With a small goiter, an intermittent course of potassium iodide is prescribed, enriching the diet with products rich in iodine.
If the disease progresses rapidly and leads to endocrine disorders,
In the case of the formation of nodes in the thyroid gland, a surgical operation is performed to remove them. After this, the course of hormones is prescribed.
To prevent the proliferation of tissues of the endocrine organ the following measures were developed:
- Addition of potassium iodate to common salt;
- eating foods high in iodine;
- individual prevention.