Fibromyoma of the uterus is the most common pelvic tumor in women. Doctors diagnose the disease in every second of the fair sex.
Fibromioma of the uterus is a benign neoplasm, which is a nodule of an overgrown connective tissue. Their size can be different - from a few millimeters to 25 cm.
When the tumor develops, the uterus increases - as in the bearing of a child. Therefore, traditionally the size of fibroids is measured in weeks of pregnancy.
Doctors consider fibromioma small if its size is less than 1.5 cm, which corresponds to 5 weeks of pregnancy. The average tumor corresponds to 5-11 weeks of pregnancy. A large tumor is called if its size is greater than 12 weeks.
What is the danger of fibroids?
- Education is not inclined to turn into a cancerous tumor, but still it is possible in 2% of cases.
- Menses in fibroids are more prolonged and abundant. This can provoke anemia.
- If the fibromioma expands, it presses on other organs. This is manifested by pain, in severe cases, the work of the bladder and intestines is disrupted
- Fibromyoma can provoke pathology of pregnancy: miscarriage, premature detachment of the placenta, bleeding.
- During labor, the risk of rupture of the uterus increases.
- Fibromioma can make it difficult for the baby to pass through the birth canal. It threatens hypoxia of the fetus.
To minimize risks, pregnant women with fibroids need to be under the supervision of a doctor. A gynecologist should be informed of any, even minor, changes in health.
How does the disease develop?
There is a disease in women of childbearing age, in most cases at the age of 30-35 years. At the age of 45-50 years, the greatest number of operations for the removal of fibroids.
Why fibroids are developing, doctors do not know yet.
Associate the appearance of a tumor with:
- the instability of the hormonal background. The hormone-dependent nature of the tumor is indicated by the fact that it is not detected in girls before the first menstruation and in women in the post-menopausal period;
- genetic predisposition. If the mother or grandmother had fibromyoma, in most cases the disease is revealed in the daughter;
- hard physical work.
Types of fibroids
Doctors distinguish several types of tumors, depending on where the nodules of the overgrown tissue are located:
- subserous tumors - develops in the outer layer of the uterus and are directed into the pelvic region;
- interstitial fibroids - inside the wall;
- submucous nodes - located under the endometrium and grow into the uterine cavity;
- atypical fibromiomas - grow in the thickness of the cervix and are directed towards the rectum or retroperitoneal ligament.
Who is at risk?
- Women with menstrual disorders (too early or too late onset of menstruation, irregular cycle).
- Doing abortions. This is the strongest hormonal stress for the body.
- Those who gave birth after 30 years.
- Women with excess weight. Fatty tissue produces the female sex hormone estrogen. Its excess can provoke the formation of a tumor.
- Women who have used hormonal contraceptives for a long time.
What are the symptoms of uterine fibroids?
Usually the disease is asymptomatic. The development of fibroids may be indicated by:
- increase in the duration of menstruation;
- frequent urination;
- Stretching pains in the lower abdomen or in the lower back;
- painful sensations during intercourse;
- change in the waist;
- several pregnancies that resulted in miscarriages.
Fibromyoma of the uterus and pregnancy
In most cases, fibroids are not an obstacle to pregnancy. Numerous studies prove that bearing a baby, subsequent childbirth and prolonged breastfeeding in some cases stop the growth of the tumor and contribute to its decrease.
Fibromyoma and postmenopausal period
After the onset of menopause, the amount of estrogen decreases. In many women, the tumor stops growing or decreases in size. If this does not happen, the gynecologist prescribes treatment.
How is fibromy diagnosed abroad?
Diagnosis of the uterine fibroids begins with a careful collection of information about the patient. The gynecologist will necessarily ask about the beginning of the menstruation, their duration, the transferred sexual diseases, pregnancies and abortions.
The next stage of diagnosis will be probing.
If the doctor suspects that the patient has a tumor, she needs to undergo ultrasound. The study will accurately determine where the nodes are located and what size they are. This method is used to establish how fast the tumor grows.
To determine the structure of the tumor, doctors use MRI.
Colposcopy and hysteroscopy allow the doctor to examine the cervix and uterine cavity by means of special optical systems. So the doctor determines the further method of treatment. During the procedure, a tissue biopsy is performed. The examination of the sample under a microscope confirms the absence of cancer cells.
Therapy, surgery or observation
If the tumor is up to 1.5 cm, the patient is young and plans to have a baby, special treatment is not required. The main thing at this stage is to control the growth of fibroids.
In the CIS countries, patients with fibromyoma are often prescribed hormonal drugs. In foreign clinics this practice is trying to move away - the method does not always help stop the growth of pathology. In this case, long-term intake of hormones adversely affects the woman's body and her ability to have children in the future.
Treatment of fibromyoma in foreign clinics
Foreign gynecological clinics use methods of treatment:
- FUS-ablation. The doctor acts on the cells of the formation by focused ultrasound under the control of MRI. The procedure is painless and not accompanied by blood loss, so it is absolutely safe. A few hours later, a woman can leave the clinic. After 3 months after the procedure, you can plan a pregnancy.
- Embolization (blockage) of the vessels that nourish the neoplasm. Under the control of the X-ray machine, a special preparation is administered to the femoral artery. Its particles block the vessels that feed the tumor. As a result, the fibroids decrease in size or disappear completely.
Procedures are shown if the size of the fibroids is less than 6 cm.
If the tumor is larger, doctors remove the node surgically. For this, laparoscopic surgery is used. It is performed by SILS surgery - through one puncture in the navel area. Another technique involves vaginal surgery.
The use of organ-preserving surgeries allows a woman to conceive and bear the child after removal of the fibroids.
Statistics of foreign clinics indicate that after a gynecological operation to remove fibroids, 85% of women have retained the opportunity to have children.
More information about the possibilities of treating fibroids abroad can be found at https://en.bookimed.com/.
Uterus removal in fibroids
With fibroids, removal of the uterus can be indicated. The advantage of the technique is that you can get rid of the disease once and for all. After such surgery, relapse of the disease is excluded.
Carry out such interference strictly according to the testimony:
- fibromyoma of large size;
- rapid growth of the tumor;
- there is a suspicion that the tumor is becoming cancerous.
Prevention of fibromyoma
To avoid a tumor, doctors recommend that women adhere to proper nutrition, monitor their own weight. The disease depends on the hormones, so you can save from it the birth of a child and prolonged breastfeeding.