Ketone bodies in the urine are an alarming indicator, indicating that a serious malfunction has occurred in the body's work. We need to immediately seek medical help and follow the doctor's recommendations without fail. This problem can not be left to chance, because the consequences can be terrible.
Ketone bodies in urine - what does this mean?
This group of elements combines several substances: acetoacetic and beta-hydroxybutyric acids, acetone. They are the natural products of decay. However, if in the results of the patient's tests the doctor sees the presence of these elements, he will make an additional examination and prescribe the treatment. For this reason it is quite logical to be interested in what the ketone bodies in the urine mean. Such indicators can tell a lot.
What are ketone bodies?
These substances are considered to be the products of metabolism synthesized in the liver. They appear during the breakdown of fats, as well as in the process of the formation of glucose. If the body works smoothly, ketones in the urine are not detected. They are completely deactivated, disintegrating into water and carbon dioxide. Acetonuria (aka ketonuria) is an elevated urinary content of such substances. This pathological condition occurs in both adults and children.
Ketone bodies in urine - norm
Every day from the body of an adult with urine, up to 50 mg of acetone substances are excreted. As these products of metabolism completely exit, they can not be detected by laboratory means. In the form with the results of clinical studies, the symbol KET is used to designate ketone bodies. Normally their quantitative content ranges from 0 to 0.05 mmol / l. Such traces of ketone bodies in the urine are considered negligible. With these results, the body works properly.
Ketonuria - Causes
Under normal functioning, the human body receives energy from glucose and a reserve accumulating in the liver - glycogen. This is enough for him to work together harmoniously. However, there are a number of circumstances when the body has increased energy consumption. At this point, glycogen stores run out, and the body begins to process its own fat cells. During such metabolic processes ketone bodies are formed. Their "surplus" is derived from urine.
If ketone bodies are found in urine, the reasons for this may be as follows:
- intensive physical activity;
- excessive stress;
- diabetes mellitus ;
- the prevalence of protein and fatty foods in the diet;
- a rigid diet;
- problems in the thyroid gland;
- hormonal failure ;
- food poisoning;
- Dehydration, provoked by a prolonged stay in the solarium or sauna;
- intoxication of the body with alcohol;
- developing anemia;
- leukemia ;
- infectious and viral diseases.
Ketonuria in diabetes mellitus
To the development of such a pathological condition leads to a sharp decrease in the level of glucose in the blood. As a result, the body experiences an acute shortage. This often happens if the dosage of insulin is incorrectly selected. However, ketonuria in type 2 diabetes mellitus also happens. This is due to the consumption of too fatty foods or prolonged starvation.
Ketonuria in pregnancy
The organism of the expectant mother experiences a heavy load. He does not always have time to adapt quickly to the changes taking place inside him. In the first months of pregnancy, the increase in ketone bodies in the urine of women is a rare occurrence. With this problem more often future mothers face, starting with the seventeenth week. However, even during this period, with a slight increase in this indicator, pregnancy can be considered normal. If the acetone in urine has sharply increased, the reasons for this may be as follows:
- hormonal disorder;
- liver disease;
- oncological formations;
- infectious diseases, accompanied by an increase in body temperature and intoxication of the body;
- dehydration .
If the ketone bodies in the urine of a pregnant woman are high, you need to act immediately. In this case, both the future mother and the fetus are at risk. In the absence of timely medical care, such complications can follow:
- severe intoxication of the woman and fetus;
- fatal outcome.
Ketonuria - Symptoms
In the development of acetonuria, three stages are distinguished, each of which has its own clinical picture. The mild form is accompanied by the following symptoms:
- strong thirst;
- abdominal pain;
- copious and frequent urination;
- From the mouth you can smell the subtle smell of acetone.
The pathological condition of the middle form is characterized by such signs:
- decreases the amount of urine;
- falls in blood pressure;
- urine smells like acetone;
- there is a disorder in the digestive tract (diarrhea, accompanied by vomiting).
The severe form of acetonuria manifests itself with such signs:
- wheezing when breathing;
- loss of consciousness;
- pain in the eyes;
- drying of mucous membranes;
- enlargement of the liver in size;
- skin peeling;
- increased body temperature;
- almost completely stops urinating.
Determination of ketone bodies in the urine
Symptoms that are characteristic of acetonuria, help in a timely manner to sound the alarm. However, it is possible to detect ketone bodies in urine only with the help of special analysis. It is done both in a medical facility, so at home. And in the first, and in the second case, if you get a positive result, you should immediately contact the doctor. Control of ketonuria should be entrusted to an experienced physician. To what to address to the doctor - depends on features of course of acetonuria:
- at a high temperature, to a therapist or infectionist;
- if ketone bodies are increased in urine against the background of diabetes mellitus - to the endocrinologist;
- when acetone is provoked by alcohol poisoning - to the narcologist;
- at pregnancy - to the gynecologist;
- if the smell of acetone in the urine appeared due to poisoning with toxic substances - to the toxicologist;
- with the pallor of the skin and the drying of the mucous membranes - to the hematologist.
Urine analysis for ketone bodies
In laboratory conditions, acetone in urine is detected using a special sample. The results are interpreted as follows:
- (-) - ketone substances are not detected;
- (+) - the reaction is weakly positive;
- (++) and (+++) - a positive result;
- (++++) - the reaction is sharply positive.
To determine the presence of ketone bodies in the urine, biological material must be properly harvested. You can do it like this:
- In the morning the patient should be thoroughly washed.
- Biological material (volume 70-100 ml) should be collected in a sterile container and immediately covered with a lid.
- Urine should be brought to the laboratory still warm.
Determination of ketone bodies in urine by test strips
This method is applicable for home use. Test strips for determination of acetone in urine can be purchased at any pharmacy without a prescription. The principle of this method is that when the acetone is in contact with the reagent, the indicator zone stains. You can determine the result by comparing the color of the test strip to acetone in the urine with the scale in the kit. To correctly conduct the analysis, you need to follow these recommendations:
- Get one strip from the tube.
- Immerse the test for a few seconds in a container with freshly collected urine.
- Carefully remove excess fluid by running a strip on the edge of the dishes with urine.
- Decipher the results.
- If the reaction is positive, you need to seek medical help.
Ketonuria - treatment
Therapy in this pathological state is reduced to excretion of acetone from the body. This can be achieved by normalizing the water balance. Drink often (every 10-15 minutes) in small sips. Ideal option is alkaline non-carbonated water and a decoction of raisins. To reduce the concentration of ketone bodies in the hospital, intravenous infusions are made with saline solution.
Purify the body will help the following enterosorbents:
- Enterosgel ;
- Polysorb MP;
When ketone bodies in the urine are elevated and this condition is accompanied by vomiting, Cerulecal injections may be prescribed. The patient must give up eating on that day. At the same time, it is important to take care of reducing the load on the liver, which already does not cope with the processing of ketone bodies. Normalize the work of this internal body will help such drugs:
- Essentiale Forte.
As an auxiliary therapy can be recommended folk remedies. As a sedative "drug" is often used curative decoctions, for example, from hawthorn or valerian. To remove intoxication will help chamomile tea, berry fruit drinks and compote of dried fruits. In addition, at home, you can make a cleansing enema (for her 1 liter of water take 1 tablespoon of salt).
Diet for ketonuria
Correct the patient's condition and prevent further increase in acetone can be through proper nutrition. The diet should be prescribed by the attending physician. When developing the nutrition plan, he will take into account the causes that provoked an increase in the concentration of ketones in the urine, and the general condition of the patient. This diet is very strict and it must be strictly observed. Prohibited products for ketonuria:
- fresh white bread and buns;
- meat, fish and mushroom rich broths;
- smoked products;
- cream and homemade fatty sour cream;
- pickled meals;
- canned food;
- green onions;
Recommended diet with a high concentration in the urine of ketone bodies:
- Low-fat boiled beef, veal and chicken;
- non-cheesy cheeses;
- boiled or baked lean fish;
- non-acidic sauerkraut;
- skim cheese;
- vegetable stew;
- oatmeal and buckwheat porridge;
- baked apples;
- vegetable soups;