Despite the fact that everyone is aware of how dangerous it can be, hundreds of thousands of people are admitted to hospitals every year with the diagnosis of mushroom poisoning. The desire to profit from the dishes from the raw materials collected by themselves conquers the instinct of self-preservation and at times leads to sad consequences.
What mushrooms can be poisoned?
Mushrooms are loved by many. But sometimes this love has very dangerous consequences in the form of severe poisoning. Mistakenly people think that poisoning can only be poisonous mushrooms. But in fact, the danger can be presented and edible fruit. The fact is that in the legs and hats creates a favorable environment for the life and reproduction of bacteria. Heat treatment kills pathogenic microorganisms. But with improper cooking - if the pickles are stored for too long, or soaked in an insufficiently salted marinade, for example - poisoning with salt mushrooms is possible.
Can it be poisoned with white mushrooms ? Yes, such cases also occur, although these fruits are considered the most harmless. The fact is that mushrooms - even edible - absorb toxins like a sponge. Therefore, they can become unbalanced in inappropriate storage. It concerns both raw, and dried, and pickled mushrooms. Therefore, before cooking it is better to study all the basic rules of processing and storage as carefully as possible.
How to distinguish poisonous mushrooms from edible?
The easiest way to protect yourself and prevent poisoning by mushrooms is to know which fruits are poisonous and which are not. Nuances a lot and immediately remember everything will not work. But after a few training sessions, you will at one glance identify "good" and "bad."
Here's how to distinguish poisonous mushrooms from edible and vice versa:
- Most of the edible fungi are tubular.
- Potentially dangerous fruits have an unpleasant greenish color. It is necessary to take care when seeing a pinkish cap. These are mainly in false mushrooms. To check, break it. If the fungus is really false, the scrap will turn red. Do not trust and too bright colors. In most cases, noticeable hats are an alarm signal.
- You can not rely on the smell, but experienced mushroom pickers argue that the poisonous prey either smells unpleasant, or none at all.
- Want to prevent poisoning with white mushrooms - put them all in a pot of water and throw a bulb into it. If the latter turns blue, unpleasant news: the harvest will have to be thrown out.
- Inexperienced mushroom pickers bypass the wormy fruit. But in fact, insects and animals almost always will only be charged for edible mushrooms. There are exceptions, but they are rare.
Types of poisonous mushrooms
Knowing the basic types of danger will also help prevent fungal poisoning. There are a lot of them - it is believed that out of more than 3000 kinds of edible mushrooms there are only about 400 - but you do not have to remember everything. It is important to know only those that are mostly found in local latitudes. Among them are such specimens:
- Pale toadstool is the most poisonous mushroom. Even a small piece of it is enough to cause irreparable harm to health. The poison affects the liver with the kidneys, and the worst thing is that signs of intoxication are too late. A distinctive feature of the toadstool is a thickening in the form of a testicle at the base of the leg.
- Amanita. And not only red with white dots. In total there are about 600 species of different fly agarics. And several of them are even quite edible. And yet it is not worth the risk - it is much safer to bypass the fly agaric by the tenth road and at best just take a picture of it.
- Poisoning by satanic mushrooms occurs even after prolonged cooking. Therefore, one should not trust their attractive appearance - the fruit caps reach 30 cm, and the leg can be up to 10 cm wide - it is too deceptive.
- Fossils grow in coniferous and deciduous forests. And they have a distinctive characteristic - a sharp unpleasant smell. Fibers cone-shaped, reach 5 cm in diameter. The flesh is white and does not change color.
- Poisoning mushrooms with swine is not so acute, but it is still dangerous - as a result of intoxication, the number of red bodies decreases. The pig looks like a big olive cap on a low leg.
- Bile fungi are often confused with pimples. But unlike the latter, they have pinkish pores, and on the leg there is a dark mesh.
Symptoms of poisoning with mushrooms
This is a very dangerous product that can strike even after thermal or any other treatment. Therefore, if suddenly signs of poisoning with mushrooms appeared soon after the use of this product, they urgently need to pay attention. Let better fears are not confirmed, than will have to face the unpleasant consequences of intoxication.
Poisoning with mushrooms, how many symptoms appear?
As a rule, the first signs of poisoning with mushrooms begin to appear 1.5 to 2 hours after eating them in food. But sometimes the reaction comes in a day or two. The way in which fungal poisoning manifests itself depends on various factors. The speed of the reaction is affected by the number of fruits eaten and their appearance, weight, age and health of the victim. Even the strongest immune system can not cope with the action of toxins. Therefore sooner or later, but signs of intoxication will appear.
The first signs of poisoning with mushrooms
It is almost impossible to ignore them. Here's how the poisoning of mushrooms:
- severe vomiting;
- diarrhea up to 15 times a day;
- stomach ache;
- increase in temperature to 38-39 degrees;
- upper and lower extremities become colder;
- inflammation of the stomach and intestines;
- impairment of pulse;
- the appearance of delusions and hallucinations;
- a noticeable mental disorder;
- increased sweating and drooling;
- problems with breathing;
- drowsiness and weakness;
- jaundice .
Poisoning of pickled mushrooms and botulism are similar, but with little nuances. The main symptoms are:
- nausea with vomiting;
- severe headaches;
- impaired vision (in the eyes begins to double, everything floats);
- the oral mucosa is dried;
- there are cramps;
- difficulty breathing.
What to do when poisoning with mushrooms?
Self-medication with intoxication is strictly prohibited. Therefore, when there is poisoning with poisonous mushrooms, the first and most important thing that needs to be done is to call specialists or to try to deliver the victim himself to the receiving dormitory of the nearest medical center. If you can save product samples, do it. So experts will be able to find out what poison caused the poisoning, and rather pick up a suitable effective treatment.
First aid for poisoning with mushrooms
The main thing to remember is that the victim can not be harmed. Do not need to quickly bury the Internet in search of practical advice. The main emergency aid for poisoning with mushrooms is to wash the stomach. This is necessary to remove the remaining toxins from the body. The first aid for poisoning with poisonous mushrooms assumes a plentiful drink. The patient can give tea, water or a weak solution of potassium permanganate, and then cause vomiting by pressing the root of the tongue. The procedure must be continued until the remainder of the food leaves the stomach.
Poisoning with mushrooms - what to do at home?
In addition to abundant drinking, the affected can be given a laxative and tablets of activated charcoal. If fungal poisoning has occurred, treatment at home assumes the most effective cleansing of the stomach and intestines. Because coal - the best help. It is an effective sorbent. Take it should be 1 piece per kilogram of body weight. But if the patient has symptoms of dehydration - low blood pressure, loss of consciousness, convulsions - the above methods can harm.
Mushroom poisoning - hospital treatment
The first thing they do in the hospital is to inject the probe and use it to wash the stomach . Often, with the problem of fungal poisoning, treatment involves taking a salt laxative, intravenous medication and accelerated diuresis. In the first day, hemosorption is carried out and the toxins are removed from the blood. In the presence of hallucinations, the patient is given the antidote Atropine.
Poisoning with fungi - consequences
The most dangerous poisoning by grebe. It ends with a lethal outcome in 50-90% of cases. If the patient eats up to 3 fruits, death occurs in 100% of cases. With the use of other species, the effects of fungal poisoning may be less critical. In the case when the treatment begins on time, the person is fully restored. If the help was not provided, then within 5-8 days, death occurs with a 50% probability.
Prevention of poisoning with mushrooms
The easiest way to buy mushrooms in proven places. But if the passion to collect fruits can not be overcome, here are some tips on how not to get poisoned by mushrooms:
- Do not collect unfamiliar fruits.
- Try to avoid old mushrooms.
- When preparing, do not forget to carefully process and boil the hats with legs. First pour out the few decoctions.
- Clean and prepare mushrooms immediately after collection.
- You do not need to collect anything near roads and industrial zones.
- Do not pick mushrooms in plastic bags. It is best to use baskets.
- If the mushroom canned food has a lid, it is safer to throw it away.