The ambient air enters the lungs through a complex system of the respiratory tract. In pulmonology, they are called the bronchial tree and consist of bronchi and bronchioles. Inflammation of the mucous membranes of these pathways often causes severe and irreversible complications, so pathology is important in time to diagnose and cure.
Acute bronchitis - causes
The described disease develops against the background of bacterial, fungal and viral (predominantly) infections due to their progression and a decrease in the activity of immunity. There are factors that aggravate or indirectly provoke bronchitis - the reasons for the deterioration of the resistance of the body:
- supercooling ;
- abuse of strong drinks;
- focal lesions of the nasopharynx;
- regular inhalation of toxic chemical compounds;
- excessively dry, hot or humid air;
- heart failure with congestion in the lungs;
- disturbances of nasal breathing and others.
Acute obstructive bronchitis
Sometimes the described disease progresses and leads to a complete or partial obstruction of the airways. In such situations, obstructive bronchitis is diagnosed - the reasons for the development of this pathology are similar to those listed above. Rarely the patency of the respiratory tract is hampered by a hereditary genetic disease, which is accompanied by a deficiency of ɑ1-antitrypsin.
Acute simple bronchitis
Inflammatory processes without complications and obstruction occur against the background of acute respiratory infections and viral infections. Simple bronchitis is a typical consequence of influenza , especially when the immune system is defective. If the therapy is performed in a timely manner, the pathology will not progress. Otherwise, acute bronchitis will quickly pass into a chronic form. It is fraught with extremely dangerous consequences, regular relapses and can provoke asthma.
Acute bronchitis - symptoms
The disease leads to excessive secretion of sputum in the respiratory tract. Because of the large amount of mucus, the mobility of the bronchial villi is lost, which in a normal state serve to purify the incoming air. Against the backdrop of these processes, all pathogenic substances penetrate the body, provoking additional irritation and characteristic signs of acute bronchitis - hyperthermia and cough. In addition, there are other symptoms:
- soreness in the thoracic region;
- sleep disturbance;
- lack of appetite;
- shortness of breath (sometimes);
- wheezing or whistling when breathing.
Temperature for acute bronchitis
This disease is accompanied by intensive inflammatory processes, therefore it is always combined with fever or subfebrile hyperthermia. The temperature of bronchitis can rise to 39 degrees within the first 3-5 days. Gradually it will decrease and by the end of the week it will be normalized or set at the level of 37-37.3. If acute bronchitis is not treated, the heat will last longer. Progressing pathology is combined with severe fever, especially if it is caused by a viral infection.
Cough with acute bronchitis
First, the described symptom of the disease has a dry or nasal, sometimes "barking" character. After a few days, the cough becomes softer and gets wet. Expectorated sputum in acute bronchitis can be mucous and translucent, or white and yellow with purulent inclusions. Consistency of this secret and its coloring depends on the degree of progression of the disease, the intensity of the inflammatory process.
Acute bronchitis - diagnosis
Confirmation of the development of the presented disease is carried out at the reception of a pulmonologist or therapist. The diagnosis of "acute bronchitis" is established after the collection of anamnesis, examination and scrupulous hearing of the chest stethoscope. To differentiate this pathology from other similar diseases, additional studies are sometimes carried out. To identify acute bronchitis help:
- general and biochemical blood tests;
- X-ray examination of the chest;
- bronchoscopy ;
- general urine analysis;
- bacteriological culture of sputum.
How to treat acute bronchitis?
The therapeutic approach is made by the doctor depending on the patient's state of health, the severity of the symptoms and the causes of the pathology. If the patient's condition is severe and there is an intoxication of the body, hospitalization is indicated. In other cases, acute bronchitis is treated at home:
- Compliance with bed rest. Especially important is relaxation at high body temperature.
- Power correction. The diet should be replenished with easily digestible dishes and vitamins.
- Warm drinks. The use of herbal teas, breastfeeding and mineral water (alkaline) helps to thin the secret and accelerate its expectoration.
- Rejection of bad habits. Immediately during treatment, it is strictly forbidden to smoke and drink alcohol.
- Warming. Applying mustard plasters on the chest zone relieves of painful sensations. The procedure is allowed only at normal temperature.
Medicine for bronchitis
Medication therapy is aimed at eliminating the characteristic symptoms of the disease. Acute bronchitis is treated through the following groups of drugs:
- expectorant ;
- bronchodilators (with obstruction);
If the causative agent of the pathological process is a viral infection, appropriate medications are additionally prescribed. Antibiotics for acute bronchitis are included in the scheme of therapy only with the appearance of purulent disseminations in the coughing mucus and the detection of bacterial flora in sputum. Antimicrobial drugs are selected based on the secretion of the secret to the sensitivity to different types of medications.
In parallel, physiotherapeutic manipulations are performed:
- vibrating massage;
- ultraviolet irradiation;
- special gymnastics;
- ultrahigh-frequency therapy;
- inductothermy and others.
Inhalation with bronchitis
The method in question refers to ancillary activities in a comprehensive treatment approach. Inhalation by steam or using a nebulizer (aerosol manipulation) provides:
- moistening of mucous membranes;
- cough relief;
- relief of expectoration of mucus, its dilution;
- improvement of breathing;
- getting rid of throat irritation.
This procedure is recommended if acute obstructive bronchitis is diagnosed - treatment with inhalants helps to prevent blockage of the airways and restore their patency. It is important to use only therapeutic solutions prescribed by the pulmonologist. Independent selection of unsuitable drugs can lead to complications.
Acute bronchitis - treatment with folk remedies
A very quick expectorant effect produces freshly squeezed black radish juice. There are several options how to cure acute bronchitis with the use of this natural raw material, but the most effective method is considered as the most effective. It is necessary to cut out the core in the root, pour a little honey into the cavity and leave it warm for the night. In the morning in the radish will be a healing and tasty syrup, which should be drunk 15 ml to 4 times a day. The proposed method can alleviate even acute obstructive bronchitis.
Recipe for cough therapy
- milk - 180-210 ml;
- fresh or dried figs - 2-6 pieces (depending on the size).
Preparation and reception:
- Rinse the fruits and pour them with milk.
- Cook the figs until you acquire a solution of brown color on a quiet fire.
- There is a ready-made fig, washed down with milk, in the intervals between meals.
- To be treated 10-14 days.
Complications of acute bronchitis
Common consequences of the described disease:
- asthmatic bronchitis;
- bronchiolitis obliterans;
- heart failure;
- pulmonary insufficiency;
If the treatment of acute bronchitis was not performed correctly or the pathology was often repeated because of a weakened immune system, the disease acquires a chronic course with recurrent relapses. In such situations, complications are more severe:
- bronchial asthma;
- emphysema of the lungs;
- chronic obstructive disease;
Prevention of acute bronchitis
Prevent the development of inflammatory processes in the mucous membranes help standard measures to support the immune system - refusal to smoke and inhale narcotic substances, adhere to a healthy diet and regular physical activity. Additional prevention of bronchitis suggests:
- limiting contact with sick people during the flu epidemic;
- timely and effective treatment of nasopharyngeal diseases;
- Use of a special mask when working in dusty or contaminated rooms;
- control of bronchial asthma and exacerbations of allergies;
- maintenance of normal humidity and air temperature in the house;
- regular hardening.