Often, the cause of complications in the period of delivery is a weak labor activity. As a result of such a violation, negative consequences can arise both in the process of childbirth and in the postpartum period. Let us examine this phenomenon in more detail, let us find out: what is meant by weak generic activity, highlighting the causes, signs and methods of struggle.
"Weak labor" - what is it?
Before considering pathology, we will understand the definition and find out: what is a weak labor activity in women and when it arises. About such an obstetric disorder is said, when the contractile activity of the uterus does not have the necessary strength to expel the fetus. This is due to the change in the duration and periodicity of labor contractions. They are rare, short, inefficient. As a result, the process of opening the cervix slows down, the speed of fetal progression decreases, and the development of mild labor is observed.
Weak labor activity - causes
Due to the fact that often a violation is provoked simultaneously by several factors, the reasons for weak labor in women in a particular case are problematic. Thus doctors allocate some groups of factors which cause infringement of process of delivery. Among them are:
1. Obstetrical complications:
- early discharge of the amniotic fluid ;
- mismatch in the size of the fetal head;
- the presence of dystrophic and structural changes in the walls of the uterus (the presence of abortions, scraping in the history, endometriosis, uterine fibroids);
- rehydration of the cervical muscular layer (non-extensibility of the organ due to previous operations, diseases);
- multiple pregnancies ;
- polyhydramnios ;
- abnormal placenta previa;
- pelvic presentation ;
2. Pathologies of the reproductive system:
- congenital anomalies of the uterine structure (bicorneous, saddle-shaped);
- sexual infantilism (underdevelopment of reproductive organs);
- chronic inflammatory processes in the uterus;
- violation of the menstrual cycle;
- diseases of the endocrine system, leading to hormonal imbalance.
3. Extragenital diseases:
- chronic diseases of internal organs (pathology of the liver, kidneys, heart);
- disruption of the endocrine system (obesity, hypothyroidism, diabetes mellitus).
4. Factors attributable to the infant:
- intrauterine infection;
- intrauterine growth retardation;
- a premature pregnancy;
- premature delivery;
- fetal hypoxia;
- fetoplacental insufficiency .
5. Iatrogenic causes:
- long reception of rhythm-stimulating agents;
- neglect of anesthesia during delivery;
- unreasonable amniotonia (autopsy of a bladder by a doctor);
- private vaginal research.
Is weak inheritance given birth?
The belief of some expectant mothers that weak inheritance is inherited is erroneous. This pathology has no connection with the genetic apparatus, so it can not be inherited from the mother by the daughter. In most cases, the violation occurs when the process of delivery is incorrectly administered, the woman does not fulfill the requirements of the obstetrician. Proof of the lack of connection of the violation with heredity is the high frequency of its development in the process of birth.
Weak labor during the first birth
In order to understand why there is a weak labor activity, it is necessary to consider briefly the very mechanism of birth. So after the opening of the cervix, the end of the first period, the ejection phase begins. More often the weakness of labor occurs at the stage of opening, the gradual increase in the lumen of the cervical canal is suspended. As a result, this period of childbirth is delayed, the labor mother loses her strength, and becomes very tired. Given these features, among the causes of mild labor during the first delivery can be identified:
- incorrect prenatal preparation of the pregnant woman;
- violation of the algorithm for conducting the first stage of labor - excessive drug stimulation of the process;
- non-compliance with the birth of obstetrician instructions.
Weak labor at second birth
Telling about what is associated with weak labor activity during repeated childbirth, physicians put forward a violation of the process of delivery. A feature of the second and subsequent delivery is a shortening of the period of disclosure and expulsion. Contractions increase, acquire an intense character in a short time. The absence at the same time of a number of competent medical staff able to provide generic benefits increases the risk of a decrease in the activity of uterine structures. The maternity mother herself loses her strength, can not productively strain, a secondary weakness.
Weak labor activity - signs
The diagnosis of "weak labor" is exhibited exclusively by the obstetrician who takes delivery. Thus doctors estimate character of fights, speed of disclosing of a neck of a uterus. The lengthening of the period of disclosure itself is a symptom of the disorder. There are also signs of weak labor activity:
- short duration and low intensity of contractions;
- decrease in the rate of fetal progression through the birth canal;
- increased intervals between contractions;
- severe exhaustion of the parturient woman;
- development of fetal hypoxia.
Weak labor activity - what to do?
After experiencing this violation once, women preparing to become a mother for the second time are often interested in the question of how to intensify the contractions with weak labor. Initially, everything depends on the mood of the pregnant woman herself, her preparedness for childbirth. Fears, overwork, fear for the future baby - badly affect the process of delivery.
In order to reduce the risk of developing weak labor, doctors recommend future mothers:
- calm down, using non-drug ways (massage, proper breathing);
- in the period of disclosure it is necessary to show activity - walking, light jumps in place help the cervix;
- if the woman is forced to take a horizontal position (the dropper is connected) - it is necessary to lie on the side with which the frontal back is located.
- you should monitor the condition of the bladder - it needs to be emptied every 2 hours.
Drugs with mild labor
With such a violation as a weak labor activity, how to intensify fights, to stimulate the process, doctors decide on the basis of the degree of pathology, the condition of the mother in childbirth. The main non-drug method of activation of labor is amniotomy - violation of integrity, dissection, fetal bladder. Manipulated when opening the cervix by 2 cm or more. In the absence of effect within 2-3 hours, if the weak labor activity does not disappear, resort to medical strengthening of labor. Among the drugs used:
- Oxytocin. Enter the drip, intravenously. Begin to use when opening the cervix for 5 or more cm and after the opening of the bladder or the passage of water.
- Prostenon. Applied to the initial stage, when the cervix still does not pass 2 fingers. The drug causes coordinated contractions without violating the blood circulation in the "placenta" system.
- Enzaprost (dinoprost). The drug is used in the active opening phase, when the lumen of the cervical canal reaches 5 cm or more. The drug actively stimulates contractions of uterine myometrium. At the same time there is an increase in blood pressure, a thickening of the blood. This medication is not used in the presence of gestosis, disruption of the blood coagulation system. Enter the drip, dissolving in physiological solution.
Caesarean section with mild labor
In the absence of the effect of medication, impairment of the fetus, cesarean is administered with mild labor. Emergency surgical intervention requires high qualification of physicians, conditions. If weakness arose in the period of exile (ineffective attempts and fights), often use obstetric forceps. This device helps to extract the fruit outside. A timely manual for childbirth reduces the risk of complications.
Weak labor activity - consequences
When weak labor activity develops, the second birth is the first or the first, the assistance to the parturient woman should be provided in a timely manner. Among the negative consequences of this violation:
- non-coordinated generic activity;
- fetal hypoxia;
- compression of soft tissues;
- Postpartum hemorrhage in women.
Weak labor activity - prevention
Talking about how to prevent such a complication, as a weak labor activity, how to avoid its development, doctors pay attention to the full compliance with the birth of the instructions of midwives. Preventive measures include:
- psycho-preventive training - performing a set of exercises;
- vitamin therapy - taking from 36 weeks of vitamin complexes containing folic acid, B6, vitamin C;
- adherence to the daily routine;
- creation of a comfortable psychological environment for the future mother.